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Cryptography Research Papers 2015 Pdf

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cryptography research papers FREE IEEE PAPER. FREE DOWNLOAD ( PDF) from olhon.info Notices of the AMS, ,olhon.info During the first six. International Journal of Research in advance Engineering,. Volume -1 Isuue-2, Feb, Available at olhon.info In this review paper different asymmetric cryptography techniques, such as RSA (Rivest Shamir and . This algorithm works on “.doc,.pdf,.txt” and other types of files, and hash function can. Adaptive witness encryption and asymmetric password-based cryptography. Public Key Cryptography - PKC , Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer.

Pereira, Gustavo Zanon: Subgroup security in pairing-based cryptography.

cryptography research papers 2015

Journal of Number Theory, Elsevier , doi Journal of Biomedical Informatics, Volume 50, Elsevier , pp — Bos, J. Date: [ pdf ] [ bibtex ] Joppe W.

Date: [ pdf ], supersedes [ pdf ] Kristin Lauter, Michael Naehrig, Vinod Vaikuntanathan: Can homomorphic encryption be practical? Date: [ pdf ] Geovandro C. Pereira, Marcos A. Kristin Lauter, Peter L.

Supersedes: [ pdf ], supersedes: [ pdf ] Caution: The software as described in versions and of the paper has a bug related to the choice of curve parameters. There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private communications and protecting health care information.

One essential aspect for secure communications is that of cryptography.

But it is important to note that while cryptography is necessary for secure communications, it is not by itself sufficient. The reader is advised, then, that the topics covered here only describe the first of many steps necessary for better security in any number of situations.

This paper has two major purposes. The first is to define some of the terms and concepts behind basic cryptographic methods, and to offer a way to compare the myriad cryptographic schemes in use today.

The second is to provide some real examples of cryptography in use today. See Section A.

Such mention is for example purposes only and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, should not be taken as a recommendation or endorsement by the author. Some experts argue that cryptography appeared spontaneously sometime after writing was invented, with applications ranging from diplomatic missives to war-time battle plans. It is no surprise, then, that new forms of cryptography came soon after the widespread development of computer communications. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any untrusted medium, which includes just about any network, particularly the Internet.

Authentication: The process of proving one's identity. Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original.

Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message.

Key exchange: The method by which crypto keys are shared between sender and receiver. In cryptography, we start with the unencrypted data, referred to as plaintext. Plaintext is encrypted into ciphertext, which will in turn usually be decrypted back into usable plaintext.

The encryption and decryption is based upon the type of cryptography scheme being employed and some form of key. In many of the descriptions below, two communicating parties will be referred to as Alice and Bob; this is the common nomenclature in the crypto field and literature to make it easier to identify the communicating parties.

If there is a third and fourth party to the communication, they will be referred to as Carol and Dave, respectively. A malicious party is referred to as Mallory, an eavesdropper as Eve, and a trusted third party as Trent.

Finally, cryptography is most closely associated with the development and creation of the mathematical algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt messages, whereas cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking encryption schemes. Cryptology is the term referring to the broad study of secret writing, and encompasses both cryptography and cryptanalysis.

For purposes of this paper, they will be categorized based on the number of keys that are employed for encryption and decryption, and further defined by their application and use. The three types of algorithms that will be discussed are Figure 1 : Secret Key Cryptography SKC : Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption; also called symmetric encryption.

Primarily used for privacy and confidentiality. Public Key Cryptography PKC : Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption; also called asymmetric encryption. Primarily used for authentication, non-repudiation, and key exchange. Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information, providing a digital fingerprint. Primarily used for message integrity. Secret Key Cryptography Secret key cryptography methods employ a single key for both encryption and decryption.

As shown in Figure 1A, the sender uses the key to encrypt the plaintext and sends the ciphertext to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption.

With this form of cryptography, it is obvious that the key must be known to both the sender and the receiver; that, in fact, is the secret. The biggest difficulty with this approach, of course, is the distribution of the key more on that later in the discussion of public key cryptography.

Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. A Self-synchronizing stream cipher.

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From Schneier, , Figure 9. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit byte or computer word at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. Stream ciphers come in several flavors but two are worth mentioning here Figure 2. Self-synchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a function of the previous n bits in the keystream. It is termed "self-synchronizing" because the decryption process can stay synchronized with the encryption process merely by knowing how far into the n-bit keystream it is.

One problem is error propagation; a garbled bit in transmission will result in n garbled bits at the receiving side. Synchronous stream ciphers generate the keystream in a fashion independent of the message stream but by using the same keystream generation function at sender and receiver.

While stream ciphers do not propagate transmission errors, they are, by their nature, periodic so that the keystream will eventually repeat. Source: Wikimedia Commons A block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block.

In general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher.

The most common construct for block encryption algorithms is the Feistel cipher , named for cryptographer Horst Feistel IBM. As shown in Figure 3, a Feistel cipher combines elements of substitution, permutation transposition , and key expansion; these features create a large amount of " confusion and diffusion " per Claude Shannon in the cipher.

International Association for Cryptologic Research

One advantage of the Feistel design is that the encryption and decryption stages are similar, sometimes identical, requiring only a reversal of the key operation, thus dramatically reducing the size of the code software or circuitry hardware necessary to implement the cipher.

One of Feistel's early papers describing this operation is " Cryptography and Computer Privacy " Scientific American, May , 5 , Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following are the most important: Electronic Codebook ECB mode is the simplest, most obvious application: the secret key is used to encrypt the plaintext block to form a ciphertext block.

Two identical plaintext blocks, then, will always generate the same ciphertext block. ECB is susceptible to a variety of brute-force attacks because of the fact that the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext , as well as deletion and insertion attacks. In addition, a single bit error in the transmission of the ciphertext results in an error in the entire block of decrypted plaintext.A lot of analysis are carried publically key cipher rather than stream based mostly cipher in order that to produce high security.

Date: [ pdf ], supersedes [ pdf ] Kristin Lauter, Michael Naehrig, Vinod Vaikuntanathan: Can homomorphic encryption be practical? Background The following section provides a brief description of scientometrics and QC for those readers not familiar with these domains.

Partitioning arguments are a popular way to prove the security of a cryptographic scheme. The encryption and decryption is based upon the type of cryptography scheme being employed and some form of key. Partitioning arguments are a popular way to prove the security of a cryptographic scheme.