IMPLEMENTING THE LEXICAL APPROACH PDF
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Index Terms—lexical chunks, lexical approach, college English classes I. . Lexical approach is implemented through the whole unit and activities are. Implementing the Lexical Approach by Michael Lewis, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Initially, the implementation of the lexical syllabus in the language classroom. was similar in a number of ways to that of the natural approach.
Lexical fields represent knowledge in a language, but there is much more to vocabulary than simple lists of words, nouns or verbs. The Lexical Approach can be summarized in a few words: language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks.
Teachers using the Lexical Approach will not analyse the target language in the classroom, but will be more inclined to concentrate learners' attention upon these chunks. This new approach is understood as a serious attempt at revaluation for the individual teacher and the profession as it develops many of the fundamental principles advanced by proponents of Communicative Approaches.
The most important difference is the increased understanding of the nature of lexis in naturally occurring language, and its potential contribution to language pedagogy. Language teaching claims to be a profession. If it is, its practitioners cannot simply rely on recipes and techniques; they also need an explicit theoretical basis for their classroom procedures. According to Lewis, too few language teachers exhibit the kind of intellectual curiosity and readiness to change that is normally associated with professional status.
It is disappointing that so few teachers are anxious to inform themselves and their learners about recent changes in linguistics and methodology; it is even more disappointing that many teachers are hostile to anything which challenges the central role of grammatical explanation, grammatical practice and correction, all ideas which the Lexical Approach demotes or discards.
Collocation is used as an organizing principle. Most importantly, language consists of grammaticalised lexis--not lexicalised grammar. In considering questions of such a practical nature, examples should be quite helpful. No better example exists than one where implementation efforts have been successful in changing the way students learn languages.
Implementing the Lexical Approach in classes does not mean a radical upheaval, likely to upset colleagues, parents or learners. On the contrary, if introduced with thought and sensitivity, its introduction will be almost invisible, involving perhaps 20 or even 50 small changes in every lesson, each in itself unremarkable, but the cumulative effect will be more effective teaching and more efficient learning.
This is exactly the primary concern of this book, based on the reactions of many teachers to the Lexical Approach, thus contributing to the continuing debate. A creditable feature of the book, with its eleven chapters, glossary, and bibliography, is the amount of space that Lewis devotes to practical exemplifications of his ideas, to the evaluation of existing materials, and to classroom reports written by teachers who have exploited the Lexical Approach in different ways depending on their own areas of interest or expertise and their learners' level, needs and interests.
I particularly appreciated those sections of the book depicting activities which are fully consistent with the approach or which have modified it. I found particularly convincing the way in which the teachers were happy with the new activities and the improvements in their learners' performance. Six colleagues have modified their teaching, which they report as being in some way more successful than their previous practice: 1.
Cherry Gough describes a way of introducing collocation to a class. Ron Martinez describes an activity based on the delexicalised verb get. Mark Powell describes sound scripting, which integrates lexis and phonology.
Lexical Approach Classroom Activities
Jonathan Marks reviews the whole area of pronunciation. George Woolard describes imaginative, literature- based group writing activities. Heinz Ribisch describes how he has extended his learners' notebooks.
But he also values writing because it enables learners to see and manipulate the language on the page. The organisation may be based on the principles discussed above and on the most easily retrievable system of all. In much the same way Saying what is coming next What I think you should do is.
Expressions with a Keyword such as keep. Lexical understanding provides ways. Have you ever used a. My mental lexicon seems to contain all these: Chapter 5 Organising Lexis 77 I'm afraid that's not very convenient at the moment. As usual. Teachers should be alert to the opportunity occasionally to re-organise the language already recorded by learners into patterns or pages which may not be apparent to the learners without guidance.
I was flabbergasted. Sometimes a little bit of writing can make a big difference The following boxes show the different possibilities: We do this in LI.
The natural and most efficient way of storing a large part of your mental lexicon is in multi-word chunks. I could not be certain about items such as have a?
Experiments with learners suggest that formats with 3 or 5 alternatives are large enough to be useful and small enough to be manageable. Different formats. Formats will encourage the recording of complete Collocations and Expressions.
Teachers will undoubtedly wish to experiment. If we want to encourage learners to record larger chunks. It is easier to build using prefabricated bits. Earlier we suggested two major changes to the way learners record new language: Long lists confuse.
Collocation We already know that the headword of most collocations is a noun. In a truly lexical Notebook. The formats are helpful frameworks. It is not necessary to fill all the spaces in a box at one time. The idea is not to fill the box with any words which could collocate but to selectively record only those which: Some words may have 5 useful verbs and three adjectives.
Sometimes a very high percentage of all the occurrences of a particular item is covered by a comparatively small number of collocates. Sunday was a really beautiful awful day.
Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory into Practice
These fixed items need to be recorded with LI equivalents. Learners should record such combinations with the contextual opposite in formats such as: Opposite silly cushy slight Adjective bright challenging serious Noun idea job hindrance.
ChapterS Organising Lexis 81 much slightly marginally significantly better cold bitterly disappointed Contextual opposites EFL frequently over-simplifies and distorts by setting up crude pairs of supposed opposites: This is a good poor result. Have a good time.
Chapters Organising Lexis 81 much slightly marginally significantly better cold bitterly disappointed Contextual opposites EFL frequently over-simplifies and distorts by setting up crude pairs of supposed opposites: These fixed items need to be recorded with Ll equivalents.
This suggests these two simple cascade formats to reflect this pattern.
Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory into Practice pdf free
The thought bubbles are filled with 'what you think' in the most straightforward way: I don't like that. The teacher can direct the learners' attention to different kinds of response by using suitable formats. In 1 a systematic set of responses would be: Have you got the time please? Making a phone call. Learners complete the five boxes with five verbs in the correct sequence. He's out.
We're having a party on Saturday. Checking someone's address. So late!
I'd better be going then. Cascades Here is a type of exercise familiar to many teachers from their school stencil bank: Give three possible responses to the following: Would you like to come? We've run out of coffee. I don't feel very well.
Studies show that the paradigm of brief spoken exchanges is not the 2-part question-answer. Story boxes fill I boil I warm I pour I stir invite in take coat get drink eat I I go home choose book I pack I fly land This simple format is used with an everyday situational heading such as Buying something.Courses which aim at oral competence need materials and procedures which develop the lexicon in precisely this way.
A particular thing is called a pen in English, while another thing is called a book, but you cannot usefully ask why these particular words are used for these particular objects. In China, what problems happened? When English is spoken it is heard by the ear divided up into tone units. Implementation may involve a radical change of mindset, and suggest many changes in classroom procedure, but the methodological changes are small: I am particularly grateful to the colleagues who have contributed classroom reports for this book, to Heinz Ribsch's pupils who kindly lent me their notebooks, and finally to my colleagues Jimmie Hill, who proved a demanding but helpful editor, and Mark Powell, who provided some vauable insights.
Unless you chunk a text correctly, it is almost impossible to read with understanding, and unless you speak in appropriate chunks, you place a serious barrier to understanding between yourself and your listeners.
Jaira Espinosza Lopez.
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