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INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY PDF

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Introduction to Environmental Geology 5th Ed. - E. Keller (Pearson, ) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Introduction / Overview of Environmental Geology. I. The Topic Defined. A. Environmental Geology. 1. application of geologic principles to "real-world" problems. Lecture 1. Introduction to Environmental. Geology. Page 2. Course Description. • Environmental Geology is a general education course that investigates the.


Introduction To Environmental Geology Pdf

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A. Keller. Download Introduction To Environmental Geology; 5e (6th Cus pdf · Read Online Introduction To Environmental Geology; 5e (6th C pdf. From the forthcoming book Introduction to Environmental Geology, Fourth Edition , by Edward A. Keller, ISBN To be published by Pearson. Environmental Geology – Introduction. Environmental Geology. GEO Have your clicker GEO Downloadable lecture slides pdf format.

Gaia Thinking Fosters Interdisciplinary Thinking. The hypothesis is named for Gaia.

As interpreted by most scientists. This hypothesis is supported by some studies showing that life on Earth plays an important role in regulating planetary climate.

Very an important principle in the prediction of changes in the Earth system. British scientist and professor James Lovelock introduced the Gaia hypothesis. The Gaia hypothesis is best stated as a series of hypotheses: Some people have interpreted this idea as support for the broader Gaia hypothesis. It asks how. In contrast. This trend has continued. The challenge is to learn to predict changes that are likely to be important to society and then to develop management strategies to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

These natural hazards must be recognized and avoided when possible. Put concisely. For example.. We can recognize many natural processes and predict their effects by considering climatic. As people learned to produce and maintain a larger and. During the past 20 years. An emerging principle concerning natural hazards is that.

The number of hurricanes has not increased. The annual loss has been about The concentration of population and resources also increased the impact that periodic earthquakes. Early in human history.

Our numbers were neither great nor concentrated. The important topics of global change and Earth systems science will be discussed in Chapter For example: Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Geology component systems i. We humans. Public perception of hazards also plays a role in the determination of risk from a hazard. Concept Four: Hazardous Earth Processes There have always been Earth processes that are hazardous to people.

Trace gases such as carbon dioxide have increased by about percent since Geologists are excited by the thrill of discovering something previously unknown about how the world works. In complex geologic problems. Given that we know little about internal and external processes that form and maintain our world. If we have prepared our mind to do science by studying mathematics. If her hypothesis had proved to be wrong.

She then compares their mineral content. On the basis of his or her observations. This is the method of multiple working hypotheses. If little is known about the topic or process being studied. What Is Science? The map can be completed in the laboratory. Concept Five: The best hypotheses can be tested by designing an experiment that involves data collection. To test this hypothesis. Beach sand originates in the mountains. Most scientists are motivated by a basic curiosity about how things work.

She draws a conclusion that the beach sand does come from the mountains. These discoveries drive them to continue their work. An important aspect of science not often discussed in detail is concerned with the roles of knowledge. After collection and analysis of the data. If all hypotheses suggested to answer a particular question are rejected. The possible answer is a hypothesis to be tested.

The conclusion is then compared with the hypothesis. It is helpful to be able to imagine the processes occurring that play a role in a.

Examine mineral content of sand from the streams and beach and rocks from the mountains. The important variable that distinguishes geology from most of the other sciences is the consideration of time see the geologic time scale in Table 1. Hypothesis eded New hypothesis ne Pose answer The sand comes from the mountains. Albert Einstein once stated that the most important aspect of science is imagination.

The process might lead to performing a thought experiment that can be expressed in mathematics i. Observation and calculation would be a step or level of investigation in the research to understand how the deep pool is formed and maintained. There is a series of levels from qualitative and descriptive to quantitative analysis.

This process is linked to creativity. In science.. One of the ways of approaching this problem is to imagine that you are a particle. We believe they result from scour i. You might expect the large particles would end up in the 10 m-deep pool..

Knowledge is what is known. At one particular pool that was about 10 m deep. One of the interesting areas of research in rivers is to better understand how bedrock controls the morphology of river channels and how rivers incise channels into bedrock.

Levels of Investigation. I recently made a research trip to Oregon to study a coastal river that has been heavily affected by timber harvesting. If this happened.

The pool has been nearly gravel free and in the same location for many years. Knowledge is taught in schools from the very beginning through the entire education process and is critical as basic input to feed our imagination.

We can imagine that there must be processes capable of transporting coarse material through the pool. Immediately upstream from the rock wall and pool is a gravel bar composed of very large particles about the size of baseballs to basketballs.

After we have come to the realization that we believe that the coarse particles move from bar to bar and do not become trapped in pools. In trying to imagine what happens The point is.. The rock juts up from the bottom of the pool to less than 1 m from the surface. The best advice I can offer is to provide the time you need to think about your work. Based on that. The best scientists form their arguments and discussion by starting with something like: Critical thinking in the sciences.

Have we considered other points of view? Research involves a lot of reading and study. Is the precision of the measurement adequate for answering the original question? Have we stated our arguments clearly? If we are not clear in our presentation.

Further imagine the processes that will transport you the particle toward the ocean. Just downstream was abundant. If we are to understand the unknown and move science forward. Quantifying problems and analyzing data provides a deeper level of understanding. In order to help think critically. When we qualitatively understand what we think is happening and have analyzed data. I cannot overemphasize the importance of imagination.

The next step is applying critical thinking. Thinking Critically. This process could lead to formation of a hypothesis to be tested. If we are measuring a velocity or distance.. It may be said that everything is rediscovered each generation. We need to be sure that measurements will exhaustively resolve the questions we are posing.

I would disagree with that statement. We often get so involved in the details that we may lose sight of the big picture and not allow our minds to work on a problem and apply imagination.

Do our arguments make sense and follow from the evidence we have collected? Can we show qualitatively and quantitatively that the processes we have imagined to produce a pool or maintain it will do the job? How well is our argument connected to the problem we are investigating?

If the problem is pool formation and maintenance. Have we considered other points of view and looked at the problem at hand from different perspectives? Some standards can help us with effective communication. The second level.

Keller E.A. Introduction to Environmental Geology

In the Earth sciences. Field tools i. Is the problem we are addressing an important one? For our pool. Some scientists have stated that.

From this. In North Carolina. To help you conceptualize the geologic time scale. The most rapid rates. That observation and the insight from it.

Large woody debris in forests and streams has a profound effect on channel form and process. I was looking for pools to study. Of particular importance to environmental geology is that human activities may accelerate the rates of some processes. I was studying a small stream called Mallard Creek. But in Earth history he has traveled only 2. A little light went off in my head. Humans evolved during the Pleistocene epoch the past 1. As shown in Table 1. Earth formed on January 1.

Think back to your high school days. I thought. I sat there for hours. As your star zigs and zags and reaches the 50yard line. As our runner crosses the 12 yard line. The fastest rates are more than a trillion times the slowest.

Thousands of papers since the s have been written about how large. As he leaps over the 1 inch line and in for the touchdown. At less than half a yard from the goal line. What is all this woody debris about? The important point is that in our work and research to understand how our world works.

I stated this in the form of a hypothesis. It came to me that the gravel. Another way to visualize geologic time is to imagine that 1 calendar year is equal to the age of Earth. The side slope is steep where rocks are hard and resistant to incision.

Geo Books a Incision at about If the canyon incised about 1 km 0. For softer rocks. This examination might involve studying glacial ice or sediments from the bottoms of the oceans or lakes to estimate past levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

We term this phenomenon the greenhouse effect. From a few meters per day to several meters per second.

December 31 at 6 P. In answering environmental geology questions. Generally a few meters per second. Can be greater than km 62 mi per hour. As such. Can be as great as 10 mm per year about 0. The rate of incision may be increased several times by human activities. Rates are generally 0. One way to test this hypothesis would be to show that before the Industrial Revolution. To test the hypothesis that global warming is occurring. Generally 0. Depends on the type of lava and slope.

Rate is generally 0. Rates of uplift generally exceed rates of erosion. Properly completed. Our discussion about what science is emphasizes that science is a process. It takes with no uplift 3 million to million years to erode a landscape by 3 km about 1. Incision is different from erosion. Generally a few meters per year to a few meters per day. Several kilometers per second.

It takes with no erosion 1. We would be particularly interested in the last few hundred to few thousand years before temperature measurements were recorded at various spots around the planet as they are today. This has included explanations for biological evolution by biologists. In earlier times. An ethical approach to maintaining the environment is the most recent development in the long history of human ethical evolution. This role change requires us to revere. Only within this century has the relationship between civilization and its physical environment begun to emerge as a relationship involving ethical considerations.

Some beliefs are based on faith. A land ethic assumes that we are responsible not only to other individuals and society but also to the total environment. According to this ethic. See the text for further explanation. Slaveholding societies certainly had codes of ethics. Environmental including ecological and land ethics involves limitations on social as well as individual freedom of action in the struggle for existence in our stressed environment.

Culture and Environmental Awareness Environmental awareness involves the entire way of life that we have transmitted from one generation to another. As modern science emerged with the process of science. Science is not the only way a set of beliefs are established. The famous Roman philosopher Cicero once concluded that divine providence.

To uncover the roots of our present condition. A change in the concept of property rights has provided a fundamental transformation in our ethical evolution. By the sixteenth century.

When Europeans reached Easter Island in the seventeenth century. Easter Island society collapsed in just a few decades. Why Did the Society Collapse? The statues were moved into place at various locations on the island using ropes.

The statues have the form of a human torso with a stone headdress. Most are about 7 m high 21 ft. As the human population of the island increased. For religious reasons. The main symbols of the oncevibrant civilization were the statues. No trees were growing on the island. They had established a complex society spread among small villages. Volcanic soils were originally fertile. Some of the problems are highly charged 35 society on a global scale?

The topography is low. Expediential growth means that the amount of change may be happening quickly. Da are not active. There is fear today that our planet. Without boats. The people of Easter Island depleted their resources. With a subtropical climate with annual rainfall of 80 cm 50 in.

The story of Easter Island is a dark one that vividly points to what can happen when an isolated area is deprived of its resources through human activity: Limited resources cannot support an ever-growing human population.

As population pressure increased. Deforestation certainly played a role in the loss of the trees. Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Geology maining trees were used for fuel and for moving the statues into place.

This population may have been close to the maximum reached in about the year The major lesson from Easter Island is clear: Develop a sustainable global economy that ensures the survival of our resource base and other living things on Earth or suffer the consequences.

Steep high mountains generate clouds. Once the forest was cleared. A Complex Problem to Understand. The primary question from both an environmental perspective and for the history of humans on Earth is: Many environmental problems tend to be complex and multifaceted. They may involve issues related to physical. Easter Island has a naturally fragile environment18—22 compared to many other islands the Polynesians colonized: With our modern technology.

Loss of the forest also resulted in loss of forest products necessary for building homes and boats. The alternative explanation is that the Polynesian people on Easter Island at the time of European contact in numbered about 3. Soil nutrients had probably been supplied by dust from thousands of kilometers away that reached the island on the winds. Following contact. The complex processes that led to the collapse will hopefully lead to a better understanding of how we can sustain our global human culture.

Science has the role of trying to understand physical and biological processes associated with environmental problems. If the lag time is long. The idea behind the principle is that when there exists a potentially serious environmental problem. Partly for this reason. This raises the question of what constitutes a cost-effective measure. If a species becomes extinct.

Introduction to Environmental Geology 5th Ed. - E. Keller (Pearson, 2011)

Science can provide a number of potential solutions to problems. The principle. Others would argue that absolute proof of safety is necessary before a big increase in burning of coal is allowed.

The precautionary principle thus contributes to the critical thinking on a variety of environmental concerns. Applying the precautionary principle requires us to use the principle of environmental unity and predict potential consequences of activities before they occur. The European Union has been applying the principle for over a decade.

Environmental policy links to environmental economics are in their infancy.

The precautionary principle. Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Geology moves the burden of proof of no harm from the public to those proposing a particular action. By the year We will also be more comfortable when interacting with the river. Solutions to coastal erosion may involve defending the coast.

The opponents often argue that applying the principle is too expensive and will stall progress. If we value the development more than the beach. In reality. Solutions we choose to solve environmental problems depend upon how we value people and the environment.

There is no arguing that we are a very successful species that until recently has lived in harmony with both our planet and other forms of life for over As another example. It has been argued that studying our Pleistocene ancestors. Those who develop new chemicals or actions are often. The solution we pick depends upon how we value the coastal zone. Flooding is a hazard experienced by many communities. If we value the beach environment. The coastal environment.

When the precautionary principle is applied. We think of ourselves as modern people. We are more comfortable with natural sounds and smells. Science also tells us that using appropriate setbacks from the erosion zone of coastal processes provides a buffer zone from the erosion. Science tells us that consequences from the hard solution generally include reduction or elimination of the beach environment in favor of protecting development. The entire range of alternative actions should be considered.

That is why river parks are so popular. It seems unlikely that the principle will be soon applied across the board in the United States to potential environmental problems. Having an understanding of the Earth system and rates of change in systems is critical to solving environmental problems. A new emerging policy tool is the precautionary principle. The idea behind the principle is that when a potentially serious environmental problem exists.

What are some linkages between 2. Five fundamental concepts establish a philosophical framework for our investigation of environmental geology: Beyond this. The increasing world population is the number-one environmental problem. Gaia hypothesis p. Why are the people of Haiti so vulnerable to hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes? Earth processes that are hazardous to people have always existed. What are analogies or parallel developments between Haiti and Easter Island?

Are such comparisons valid? Summary The immediate causes of the environmental crisis are overpopulation. Sustainability is the preferred solution to many environmental problems. Utilizing the access code that accompanies this text. Are the ideas of sustainability and building a sustainable economy different in developing. How can the principle of uniformitarianism be applied to environmental geology? It has been argued that we must control human population because otherwise we will not be able to feed everyone.

Assuming that there is an environmental crisis today. What are the roots of the so-called environmental crisis? We state that sustainability is the environmental objective. Critical Thinking Questions 1. What is the precautionary principle and why is it important?

Assuming that we could feed 10 billion to 15 billion people on Earth. The concept of environmental unity is an important one today. What is environmental geology? Why are we so concerned about the increase in human population?

Do you think the precautionary principle should be applied to the problem of controlling the growth of the human population? If you do. Test yourself with online quizzes.

Defend or criticize the notion that increase in human population is the environmental problem and that sustainability is the solution. Companion Website 39 Review Questions 1. What is Earth systems science. How are they different. Construct an argument to support this statement. What is the Gaia hypothesis? What do we mean by average residence time? What is exponential growth?

How will solutions in developing countries differ from those in highly industrialized societies? Will religion or political systems have a bearing on potential solutions? If so. Assignments in Applied Geology. Is the Gaia hypothesis science? How could you test the main parts? Which would be hard to test?

Do you believe we have a real connection to our Pleistocene ancestors? Companion Website Introduction to Environmental Geology. Some of the impacts may be positive and some may be negative in your estimation. Here in the Indio Hills. Construction of buildings. Since Most of the beautiful mountain topography in coastal California near both Los Angeles and San Francisco is a direct result of processes related to movement on the San Andreas fault.

Earth is a complex dynamic planet that in some ways resembles a chocolate-covered cherry. The plate boundary will probably have moved eastward. In fact. Earth Figure 2. Two major cities. These processes are at the heart of producing the multitude of environments shared by all living things on Earth.

A fault is a fracture along which one side has moved relative to the other. Of course. Far from being a barren rock. Important topics include water resources Chapter 12 , water pollution Chapter 13 , mineral resources Chapter 14 , energy resources Chapter 15 , soils Chapter 16 , waste management Chapter 17 , and air pollution Chapter The focus is to present the basic principles concerning natural resources and to identify potential environmental problems and solutions.

Chapter 19 discusses global change with a focus on global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Finally, in Chapter 20, which is a "capstone," we discuss relationships between environment and society with topics such as environmental health, land-use planning, environmental law, environmental impact analysis, how we may achieve the goal of obtaining environmental sustainability, and what that environment might entail.

Major New Material in the Fourth Edition The fourth edition benefited greatly from feedback from instructors using the text— most of the changes reflect their thoughtful reviews. One new chapter—Ecology and Geology Chapter 4 recognizes important links between physical and biological processes in the study of the environment.

At the request of reviewers, many figures have been revised to more clearly illustrate the topics under discussion. Features of the Text This book is sensitive to the study needs of students.

Handbook of Field Methods and Case Studies

Each chapter is clearly structured to help you understand the material and effectively review the major concepts. These will help you identify the important concepts and terminology necessary to better understand the chapter.

The appendixes in Introduction to Environmental Geology, Fourth Edition, are intended to add additional information useful in helping you understand some of the more applied aspects of environmental geology. This information may be most useful in supplementing laboratory exercises and field exercises in which you may participate.

Also included are all illustrations and a selection of photos for the text in bit, low-compression JPEG files. All images are manually adjusted for color, brightness, and contrast. Then we animated them. Created through a unique collaboration among five of Prentice Hall's leading geoscience authors, these animations represent a Preface significant leap forward in lecture presentation. Available on the Instructor Resource Center on CD, the animations are provided as Flash files and, for your convenience, pre-loaded into PowerPoint slides.

Thackray of Idaho State University, the Instructor's Manual provides chapter outlines and objectives, classroom discussion topics, and answers to the end-of-chapter questions in the text.

The test item file is also available in both WebCT and Blackboard formats for easy import into your course management system. Based on the idealized town of Hazard City, the xvii xviii Preface assignments put students in the role of a practicing geologist—gathering and analyzing real data, evaluating risk, and making assessments and recommendations.

In Map Reading, students apply basic map reading skills by planning a route to collect stream water specimens in a case of suspected contamination. Acknowledgments Successful completion of this book was greatly facilitated by the assistance of many individuals, companies, and agencies. In particular, I am indebted to the U. Geological Survey and their excellent environmental programs and publications. To the Internet as a tremendous tool to quickly contact people and organizations doing environmental work.

To authors of papers cited in this book, I offer my thanks and appreciation for their contributions. Without their work, this book could not have been written.

I must also thank the thoughtful people who dedicated valuable time completing reviews of chapters or the entire book. Their efforts have greatly contributed to this work. Coveney, Jr. Harris, University of St. Special thanks go to Tanya Atwater, William Wise, and Frank Spera for their assistance in preparing the chapters on plate tectonics, minerals and rocks, and impacts, respectively.

Environmental geology. K46 —dc Edict of the Expulsion of the Jews. Similar documents. Introduction to Structural Geology.

EHS Introduction to Venture Capital 5th. Introduction to Environmental Planning and Policy. AND M. Shibu K V. Introduction to Environmental Science. An introduction to environmental change. Introduction to Swansea University - 5th October Introduction to Industry roundtable: Technologies impacting E-Commerce and Retail Business. Living with earth an introduction to environmental geology pdf. X earth structure an introduction to structural geology and tectonics. An introduction to Environmental Psychology.In order to help think critically.

Heidi AllgairArt Director: A large part of our solid and liquid waste disposal problems could be alleviated if these wastes were reused or recycled. Keller's students are working on earthquake hazards, how waves of sediment move through a river system following disturbance, and geologic controls on habitat to endangered southern steelhead trout.

Making the Connection is a new feature found at the end of each chapter.