olhon.info Business The Handbook Of Logistics And Distribution Management Pdf

THE HANDBOOK OF LOGISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT PDF

Friday, November 8, 2019


Importance of logistics and distribution 9; Logistics and supply chain structure 13 logistics 25; Logistics and supply chain management 27; Summary i THE The HANDBOOK OF Handbook of Logistics && Distribution Management MAnAgEMEnt 4th 5thEDItION EDITION EDItED Alan Rushton, by Croucher, Phil. DOWNLOAD PDF. Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management Alan Rushton, John Oxley and.


The Handbook Of Logistics And Distribution Management Pdf

Author:TARA TREVINO
Language:English, Spanish, Dutch
Country:Sweden
Genre:Health & Fitness
Pages:720
Published (Last):03.11.2015
ISBN:873-6-63608-819-2
ePub File Size:27.64 MB
PDF File Size:19.62 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads:40813
Uploaded by: CRISTOBAL

The handbook of. LOGISTICS and DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT 3rd edition. Alan Rushton Phil Croucher Peter Baker The Chartered Institute of Logistics and . THE HANDBOOK. OF LOGISTICS. AND DISTRIBUTION. MANAGEMENT STH EDITION Importance of logistics and distribution 9; Logistics and supply chain. Pre Order Free PDF The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management: Understanding the Supply Chain Books Online Original book.

The additional cost penalty in providing special trays and catering for another type of unit load for storage and delivery is a high one — much higher than the savings made on the product packaging. This example illustrates a classic case of sub-optimization in a logistics system. It shows that if the concept of total logistics is ignored, this can be a significant cost to a company.

As the product packaging costs have been reduced, those concerned with this company function will feel that they have done their job well. However, the overall effect on the total logistics cost is, in fact, a negative one. The company is better served by disregarding this potential saving on packaging, because the additional warehouse and transport costs mean that total costs increase. This simple example of sub-optimization emphasizes the importance of understanding the interrelationships of the different logistics elements.

A more positive action would be to measure and interpret these and other interrelationships using a planned approach to identi- fying and determining any cost trade-offs.

This approach will be a benefit to the logistics system as a whole. Such a trade-off may entail additional cost in one function but will provide a greater cost saving in another.

The overall achievement will be a net gain to the system. This type of trade-off analysis is an important part of planning for logistics. Four different levels of trade-off can be identified: Within logistics components: One example would be the decision to use random storage locations compared to fixed storage locations in a depot.

The first of these provides better storage utilization but is more difficult for picking; the second is easier for picking but does not provide such good storage utilization. Between logistics components: To reverse the earlier packaging example, a company might increase the strength and thus the cost of packaging but find greater savings through improve- ments in the warehousing and storage of the product ie block stacking rather than a requirement for racking.

Between company functions: This is illustrated in Figure 2. One example is the trade-off between optimizing production run lengths and the associ- ated warehousing costs of storing the finished product. Long production runs produce lower unit costs and thus more cost-effective production but mean that more product must be stored for a longer period which is less cost-effective for warehousing.

Between the company and external organizations: These types of trade-offs are thus at the heart of the total logistics concept. For the planning of distribution and logistics, it is important to take this overall view of a logistics system and its costs. The other side of the equation is, of course, the need to provide the service level that is required by the customer.

This balance of total logistics cost and customer service level is essential to successful logistics. In this section, the various planning horizons with their associated logistics decisions are described. In Chapter 6, a more formalized planning framework will be discussed.

This will be developed in subsequent chapters into a more practical and detailed approach to logistics planning.

Planning should be undertaken according to a certain hierarchy that reflects different planning time horizons. These are generally classified as strategic, tactical and operational. They are represented on the left side of Figure 2. There is an overlap between the different levels, which emphasizes that there are some factors that can be considered at different stages in this planning hierarchy. The relative importance of these various elements can differ between one company and another.

For example, the choice of transport mode might be a strategic decision for a company that is setting up a new global logistics operation, but might just be a tactical decision for another company that is principally a supplier to a locally based market and only occasionally exports over long distances. Choice of transport mode could even be an initial strategic decision and also a subsequent tactical decision for a single company.

Both of these different elements are essential to the running of an effective and efficient logistics operation. One way to envisage the difference between these two concepts is as follows: Most elements need to be planned correctly in the first place, and then subsequently they need to be monitored and controlled to ensure that the operation is running as well as it should be.

The practical means of monitoring and controlling logistics are described in Chapter Some of the major aspects and differences between the three time horizons are summarized in Figure 2.

The importance and relevance of these different aspects will, of course, vary according to the type and scale of business, product, etc. It is helpful to be aware of the plan- ning horizon and the associated implications for each major decision that is made. As already indicated, these may vary from one company to another and from one operation to another. Some of these — in no particular order — are as indicated in Figure 2.

In addition, they underline the need for appropriate planning and control. Distribution and logistics are not merely the transportation of goods from one storage point to another.

There are many and varied elements that go together to produce an effective distribution and logistics operation.

These elements interrelate, and they need to be planned over suitable time horizons. The planning and control of an operation can also be described within the context of a broader planning cycle.

This emphasizes the need for a systematic approach, where continual review takes place. This is a particularly important concept in logistics, because most operations need to be highly dynamic — they are subject to continual change, as both demand and supply of goods and products regularly vary according to changes in customer requirements for new products and better product availability.

One example of a fairly common framework is shown as the planning and control cycle in Figure 2. The key stages in the cycle are as follows: This might be through a regular information feedback procedure or through the use of a specific logistics or distribution audit.

The second stage is to determine the objectives of the logistics process, to identify what the operation should be trying to achieve. These objectives need to be related to such elements as customer service requirements, marketing decisions, etc. The third stage in the cycle is the planning process that spans the strategic and operational levels previously discussed.

Finally, there is a need for monitoring and control procedures to measure the effective- ness of the distribution operation compared to the plan. This should be undertaken on a regular weekly, monthly and annual basis. Where are we now? This allows for the dynamic nature of logistics, the need for continual review and revision of plans, policies and operations. This must be undertaken within a positive planning framework in order to ensure that continuity and progress are maintained.

Logistics has traditionally been seen as an operational necessity that cannot be avoided; however, a good logistics operation can also offer opportunities for improving financial performance. For improved business performance, this ratio needs to be shifted to increase profits and reduce capital employed.

There are many different ways in which logistics can have both a positive and a negative impact on the ROI. These are outlined in Figure 2. This shows ROI as the key ratio of profit and capital employed, with the main elements broken down further as sales revenue less cost representing profit and inventory plus cash and receivables plus fixed assets representing capital employed.

One of the aims of many service level agreements is to try to achieve OTIF on time in full deliveries — a key objective of many logistics systems. On the other hand, costs can be minimized through efficient logistics operations. There are a number of ways that this might happen, including: For example, there are many different types of inventory held by companies, including raw materials, components, work-in-progress and finished goods.

The key logistics functions impact very significantly on the stock levels of all of these. This impact can occur with respect to stock location, inventory control, stockholding policies, order and reorder quantities and integrated systems, amongst others. Cash and receivables are influenced by cash-to-cash and order cycle times — both of these being key logistics processes. Finally, there are many fixed assets to be found in logistics operations: The number, size and extent of their usage are fundamental to effective logistics planning.

Also, there may be good opportunities to outsource some or all of these operations, which has a significant effect on reducing fixed assets. Much of this book is taken up with the practical logistics issues that enable the maximization of profit, the minimization of costs and thus the improvement of ROI. Globalization and integration One area of significant change in recent years has been the increase in the number of com- panies operating in the global marketplace.

This necessitates a broader perspective than when a national company operates internationally. In the latter, although companies may have a presence across a wide geographic area, this is supported on a local or regional basis through local or regional sourcing, manufacturing, storage and distribution.

In the former, the company is truly global, with a structure and policy that represent a global business. Typical global attributes will include: All of these aspects serve to emphasize the added difficulty of operating effectively in a global environment. Logistics and supply chain networks have become far more complicated and the need to plan and manage logistics as a complete and integrated system has become far more difficult.

To service global markets, logistics networks become, necessarily, far more expansive and far more complex. Once again, the need is to plan and manage logistics as a complete and integrated system. Linked closely to the globalization of business is the increase in the complexity of supply chain management. As already indicated, globalization almost certainly leads to greater complexity.

Complexity provides some significant implications for logistics operations. These include: It is probably clear from this that there is a direct conflict between globalization and the move to the quick response, just-in-time operations that are being sought by many companies.

In global companies there is a tendency to see order lead times increase and inventory levels rise because of the distances involved and the complexity of logistics. In companies moving to the just-in-time philosophy there is a desire to reduce lead times and to eliminate unnecessary stock and waste within their operations. For those companies trying to achieve both goals, there is a clear challenge for logistics. Integrated systems To support the need to develop more integrated operations there have been a number of developments in logistics and distribution systems that have the concept of total logistics as their basis.

The major reason for this explosion of new ideas is twofold. The first is the realization of the importance, cost and complexity of logistics. The second is the progress made in the field of information tech- nology, which has enabled the development of sophisticated information systems to support and enhance the planning and management of logistics operations, whereby very detailed data collection and analysis can be undertaken that was previously impossible.

Some of these alternative approaches to integrated physical and information systems are described in Chapter 32, where information systems in the supply chain are discussed. In addition, some of the key aspects of integration are reviewed in Chapter 12, which considers recent develop- ments in manufacturing techniques.

Many of the origins of integrated systems have a back- ground in manufacturing. All distribution costs storage, transport, etc are therefore assigned to a specific product rather than taking an average over a whole product range.

Thus, in the same way that a budg- etary system operates, the actual costs of distributing a product are monitored and compared to a standard cost determined using DPP. In this way, areas of inefficiency throughout the whole logistics operation can be identified.

Subsequently, manufacturing resource plan- ning MRPII was developed with the objective of improving productivity through the detailed planning and control of production resources. MRPII systems are based on an integrated approach to the whole manufacturing process from orders through production planning and control techniques to the purchasing and supply of materials see Chapter 12 for further discussion.

Distribution requirements planning is the application of MRPII techniques to the management of inventory and material flow — effective warehousing and transportation support.

DRP systems operate by breaking down the flow of material from the source of supply through the distribution network of depots and transportation modes. Integrated systems of this nature require sophisticated, computerized informa- tion systems as their basis. The benefits of an effective system can be readily seen in terms of reduced freight, storage and inventory holding costs and improved customer service. Just-in-time JIT JIT originated as a new approach to manufacturing and has been successfully applied in many industries such as the automotive industry.

It has significant implications for distribution and logistics. The overall concept of JIT is to provide a production system that eliminates all activities that neither add value to the final product nor allow for the continuous flow of material — in simple terms, that eliminates the costly and wasteful elements within a production process.

The objectives of JIT are vitally linked to distribution and logistics, including as they do: As with all such approaches, JIT has some negative points as well as the more positive ones listed above. It can, for example, lead to increased transport flows due to the need for smaller but more frequent deliveries of goods to the customer. Competitive advantage through logistics Attitudes towards distribution and logistics have changed quite dramatically in recent years.

It was commonly thought that the various elements within logistics merely created additional cost for those companies trying to sell products in the marketplace. Although there is, of course, a cost associated with the movement and storage of goods, it is now recognized that distribution and logistics also provide a very positive contribution to the value of a product. This is because logistics operations provide the means by which the product can reach the customer or end user, in the appropriate condition and required location.

It is therefore possible for companies to compete on the basis of providing a product either at the lowest possible cost so that the customer will buy it because it is the least expensive or at the highest possible value to the customer eg if it is provided exactly where, when and how the customer wants it.

Some companies may, perhaps unwisely, try to achieve both of these cost and value objectives and probably succeed in neither! It is particularly important to understand which competitive stance a company is trying to achieve when planning a logistics operation.

These ideas are illustrated in Figure 2. This shows that a company may compete as a service leader, where it is trying to gain a value advantage over its competitors by providing a number of key service elements to differentiate its product.

The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management

Or it may compete as a cost leader where it is trying to utilize its resources so that it offers the product at the lowest possible cost, thus gaining a productivity advantage.

Examples of how this might be achieved are given in Figure 2. It might include a guaranteed service level or a regular update on the status of orders. For a cost or productivity advantage, this may include a number of different means of cost minimization, such as maintaining very low levels of inventory and ensuring that all manufacturing and distribution assets are kept at a high utilization.

It should also be emphasized that for many companies it is necessary to develop differently configured logistics structures to cater for the variety of service offerings that they need to provide. Leading com- panies are segmenting their supply chains according to the service and cost needs of the customer.

The concept of the supply chain is really an extension of the ideas that have been developed in this and the previous chapter concerning the integrated nature of logistics. The total logistics concept advocates the benefits of viewing the various elements of logistics as an integrated whole. Supply chain management is similar, but also includes the supplier and the end user in the process or, as indicated in Figure 1.

This is the major difference between supply chain management and traditional logistics. There are four distinct differences claimed for supply chain management over the more classic view of logistics, although some of these elements have also been recognized as key to the successful planning of logistics operations. These four are: The supply chain is viewed as a single entity rather than a series of fragmented elements such as procurement, manufacturing, distribution, etc.

This is also how logistics is viewed in most forward-looking companies. In an integrated supply chain, however, both the suppliers and the end users are included in the planning process, thus going outside the boundaries of a single organization in an attempt to plan for the supply chain as a whole.

The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management (6th ed.)

Supply chain management is very much a strategic planning process, with a particular emphasis on strategic decision making rather than on the operational systems. Supply chain management provides for a very different approach to dealing with inventory. Traditionally, inventory has been used as a safety valve between the separate components within the pipeline — thus, often leading to large and expensive stocks of products.

Supply chain management aims to alter this perspective so that inventory is used as a last resort to balance the integrated flow of product through the pipeline.

Central to the success of effective supply chain management is the use of integrated information systems that are a part of the whole supply chain rather than merely acting in isolation for each of the separate components. These enable visibility of product demand and stock levels through the full length of the pipeline.

This has only become a possibility with the recent advances in information systems technology. Stage one: Inventory Source: Stevens Figure 2. Many companies have moved to functional integration, with some achieving an element of full internal integration. Figure 2. The extent of integration has a big impact on the logistics structure of a company. A company with limited integration will hold stocks in many parts of its operation. A highly integrated company will hold very limited stocks, with the emphasis on the steady flow of product throughout the physical system.

The figure emphasizes this need for poorly integrated organizations to hold large inventories at frequent intervals throughout the supply chain. Summary The realization of the need for the effective planning and control of logistics, coupled with the obvious interrelationships within logistics systems, has led to the development of several new approaches towards integrated systems. The recent advances in information technology have made the practical application of these new approaches feasible.

All in all, there has been a very positive move towards an integrated approach to logistics, although for many companies, both large and small, there is still considerable scope for improvement. The more complex and sophisticated systems and concepts such as DPP and DRP have been adopted by a number of large, generally multinational companies. Smaller companies have been slower to adopt these concepts, despite the clear benefits to be gained.

The main reasons for this are: For many small and medium-sized companies, there is also the very pertinent factor that they need to learn to walk the logistics path before they attempt to run on it. However, even for companies such as these, there is a great deal to be gained from taking those first few steps towards recognizing that logistics should be viewed as an integrated system and that there is a strong interrelationship between the different elements of transportation, storage, informa- tion, etc.

In addition, there is the need to adopt a positive approach to the planning and control of those systems. Fortunately, in the past few years, companies have, to a greater or lesser extent, realized the importance and relevance of logistics to their business as a whole.

Thus, organizational struc- tures and planning policies are now beginning to reflect this integrated approach. The financial impact that logistics has in a business has been described. The importance of the need to integrate the various logistics components into a complete working structure that enables the overall system to run at the optimum has been identified.

Some key aspects of planning for logistics have been reviewed. Finally, a number of recent developments in logistics thinking have been described, including the globalization of companies, integrated planning systems, the use of logistics to help create competitive advantage and the concept of supply chain management.

When pressed, however, there are many companies that find it difficult to describe exactly what they mean by customer service or provide a precise definition of customer service measures. For any company or organization it is vital, therefore, to have a clear definition of customer service and to have specific and recognized customer service measures. It is also important to understand that customer service and customer service requirements can and will differ not just between industries and companies but additionally between the market segments that a business might serve.

Another relevant factor is the recognition of the complexity of customer service provision. Customer service is inextricably linked to the process of distribution and logistics. Within this process, there are many influences that may be relevant to customer service. These range from the ease of ordering to stock availability to delivery reliability. Finally, there is the need to balance the level of service provided with the cost of that provision. The downfall of many a service offering is often the unrealistic and unrecognized high cost of providing a service that may, in the event, be greater than is required by the customer.

The key to achieving a successful customer service policy is to develop appropriate objectives through a proper framework that includes liaison with the customer, and then to measure, monitor and control the procedures that have been set up. The importance of customer service As already suggested, there are few companies that do not recognize the importance of the provision of good customer service.

But, why is it so important? One way of considering customer service is to differentiate between the core product itself and the service elements related to the product. This is depicted in Figure 3. The core product concerns the item itself: There is a long list as we shall see later in this chapter , and clearly not all of the service items on our list are relevant to all products. The marketing departments of many companies recognize that the product surround elements are very important in determining the final demand for a product.

In addition, these aspects often represent only a small percentage of the cost of a product. Thus, no matter how attractive the product may be, it is essential that the customer service elements are satisfactory and, as we shall see, logistics plays a crucial role in providing good customer service.

These are the right quantity, cost, product, customer, time, place and condition; and the concept of applying these to customer service can be seen in Figure 3.

All of these dif- ferent aspects can be key requisites of a good customer service offering — indeed, each of them may be essential to ensure that a product achieves its expected sales in the various markets where it is made available.

It is notable that all of these elements are affected by the standard and quality of the logistics operations that are essential to getting a product to market.

Thus, these elements can provide the basis for identifying the different aspects of logistics that should form a part of any customer service offering, and also, and this is of equal importance, these elements should become the basis of the key measurements that are used to monitor opera- tional success or failure.

This will be considered in the final sections of this chapter. The components of customer service The logistics components of customer service can be classified in different ways. They may be seen as direct transaction-related elements, where the emphasis is on the specific physical service provided, such as on-time delivery, or they may be seen as indirect support eg non- transactional, or pre- and post-transactional attributes that are related to overall aspects of order fulfilment, such as the ease of order taking.

Pre-transaction elements: They include: Transaction elements: Under this heading would be included: Post-transaction elements: Logistics customer service elements can also be classified by multifunctional dimensions. The intention is to assess the different components of customer service across the whole range of company functions, to try to enable a seamless service provision. One of the main consequences of this approach is that it enables some very relevant overall logistics measures to be derived.

These will be considered later in this chapter. The four main multifunctional dimensions are: Each of these can be broken down into further detailed elements. One example of this is shown in Figure 3. Total order fulfilment cycle time is When identifying and measuring order fulfil- ment cycle time it is important to be able to break it down to all of the key components.

Thus, if there is a customer service problem it can be measured and traced quickly and easily and the actual detailed problem can be identified and remedied. As indicated already in this chapter, there are many different elements of customer service, and their relevance and relative importance will vary according to the product, company and market concerned. Two different models of service quality are considered: Basic service model A very simple, yet effective, view of service quality is that it is the match between what the customer expects and what the customer experiences.

Note that the customer viewpoint is what the customer perceives or believes to be happening, not necessarily what is actually happening in terms of what the sup- plier is providing or thinks they are providing. Perceived quality is always a judgement that the customer makes — whatever the customer thinks is reality, no matter what the supplier may believe to the contrary!

This is another reason why careful measurement of customer service is necessary: Thus, service quality is what the customer thinks that it is: This is particularly useful in helping to identify and measure the critical elements of service for key customers. The main factors are outlined in Figures 3. The aim of this approach is to identify the various different service gaps that can or might appear throughout the customer service process.

Measures are then set up to assess the relative importance of each of these gaps and to monitor them on a regular basis. The boxes in Figure 3. From this, the supplier should develop appropriate service quality stand- ards and specifications. These should then be communicated to and agreed with the customer. Subsequently, the service is provided by the supplier via the logistics operation.

The customer will then have a certain expectation of the service level to be provided and can compare this to the service that he or she perceives is being received. In Figure 3. Working backwards, the main issue is likely to be the one between the service that the cus- tomer expects and the service that the customer perceives to be provided Gap 6. How is this undertaken? As described later in this chapter, there are a number of different types of customer service studies that can be carried out to achieve this.

However, it is also important to be able to identify why any such service failure has occurred, and the different reasons can be identified by measuring the other service gaps that appear in Figure 3. These are as follows: This gap may, typically, be caused because the supplier and the customer are measur- ing service in a different way. This gap may be caused by a misunderstanding in communication.

The cause for this gap may be inefficiency within the delivery service. Perceived service — expected service gap Perceived service 5. Actual service — perceived service gap 4. Service standard — service delivery gap gap 1. Customer expectation — Service quality standards management perception and specification gap 2. Management perception — service standard gap supplier Management perception of customer expectation Based on work by Parasuraman and Zeithaml Figure 3.

This gap is likely to be caused by an inadequate initial opera- tional set-up. This gap is usually caused because the supplier does not under- stand the real customer requirements. Conceptual models of this nature are valuable to help the understanding of the underlying issues that are involved. They need to be interpreted into a practical format to enable actual service policies to be derived.

The remaining sections of this chapter address this requirement. Developing a customer service policy Every company that provides products and services to its customers should have an appropri- ate customer service policy. The next few sections of this chapter describe how this can be done.

Because there are so many different elements of customer service, this policy must be very clearly and carefully defined. Also, there are many different types of customer even for the same product. A can of fizzy drink, for example, may be bought in a supermarket, a corner shop, a petrol station or from a self-service dispensing unit. It is unlikely that a manufacturer of fizzy drink would wish to provide exactly the same level and style of service to all these very different customer types.

This is why many companies segment their customers into different customer categories. It is also an additional reason for having a distinct customer service policy. Many studies have been undertaken to measure the effects of poor customer service. It is also important to understand what minimum requirements are necessary when identify- ing any particular service policy.

If these minimum requirements are not met, the supplier cannot even expect to be considered as a feasible sup- plier. Once these requirements are met and the supplier begins to exceed them, it then becomes possible to achieve customer satisfaction and begin to add value to the supply relationship.

Once the positive need for a customer service policy has been accepted, it is useful to adopt a recognized approach to determine the basic requirements and format of this policy. One such approach is outlined in Figure 3. As well as showing the major steps that should be taken, the figure also indicates how these steps can be carried out. This is a six-step plan to identify key customer service components and then to design and maintain a suitable customer service package.

The main steps are: Identify the main elements of service and identify suitable market segments.

Browse more videos

The first step is to identify those elements of service that are most highly rated by customers. The main means of determin- ing these key elements are by market research techniques. A typical approach might be: A major output from this stage of the study is to enable an appropriate survey questionnaire to be designed. It is highly unlikely that a universal level of customer service will be appropriate for all customers. Most customer populations consist of a range of customers of different size and importance.

Part of this preliminary stage is, therefore, to try to iden- tify broad customer categories and to ensure that any questionnaire is designed to enable the different requirements of these different categories to be identified. It should be noted that there is a variety of types of customer service study that can be used.

These are summarized in Figure 3. For some companies it is relevant to use several of these for different purposes. Approach Comment Complaint analysis Qualitative. Statistically limited.

Limited to those who do complain. Critical incident studies Qualitative. Relevant to individual customers only. Limited scope. Customer panels Limited coverage. Qualitative information. Would not show priorities. Key client survey Useful Pareto approach. Not valid across whole client base.

Qualitative and quantitative. Figure 3. Control over response Expense. Possible interviewer bias. Can control questions answered. Can Time-restrictive.

See a Problem?

Not anonymous. Can be quick. E-mail Inexpensive. Fast response. Limited interaction. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare.

Like this presentation? Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads.Logistics and supply chain networks have become far more complicated and the need to plan and manage logistics as a complete and integrated system has become far more difficult.

The second is the progress made in the field of information tech- nology, which has enabled the development of sophisticated information systems to support and enhance the planning and management of logistics operations, whereby very detailed data collection and analysis can be undertaken that was previously impossible.

The relative make-up of these costs can vary quite significantly between different industries. With new material on international freight forwarding, environmental best practice, cool chain, intermodal shipping and outsourcing and a new, detailed index of contents. As indicated already in this chapter, there are many different elements of customer service, and their relevance and relative importance will vary according to the product, company and market concerned. The question of whether or not to outsource logistics was introduced in Chapter 4.

Qualitative and quantitative.