VOLPONE TEXT PDF
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Volpone; Or, The Fox, by Ben Jonson This eBook is .. This volume published, in a carefully revised text, all the plays thus far. Volpone; Or, The Fox by Ben Jonson. No cover available. Download; Bibrec Category, Text. EBook-No. Release Date, May 1, Copyright Status. VOLP: Good morning to the day; and next, my gold: Open the shrine, that I may see my Saint. [MOSCA WITHDRAWS THE CURTAIN, AND DISCOVERS PILES.
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Download Volpone, or the Fox free in PDF & EPUB format. Download Ben Jonson's Volpone, or the Fox for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a (c)(3) organization with EIN [Employee Identification Number] Title: Volpone; Or, The. Volpone is a comedy which exposes the greed and lust of human mind written by Ben Jonson, an English Playwright who popularized the comedy of humors.
Volpone is there and can hear very well, but he must pretend not to hear. That gives Mosca opportunity to make Volpone listen to some unpleasant things, starting about what may be the truth or may be a lie about Volpone's household--"He's the true father of his family"--and general sexual habits.
Who all are we laughing at in this schtick? Corvino will not directly solicit the murder of Volpone, but he'll go along with it. Look up what "mountebank" means nowadays. Also, picture this, and try to hear it: it's a virtuoso performance by the actor playing Volpone.
Key action here for the plot--the only action for the plot: Celia throws down her handkerchief. Note last word of scene, Mosca's "art. Mosca makes proposition to Corvino: use Celia to help get inheritance from Volpone. Question: Does Mosca pull a "good" practical joke on Corvino? Would it succeed if Corvino weren't greedy? Is it appropriate punishment for a jealous tyrant? Are Volpone and Mosca comic "scourges of God"?
Do we see a worldly-wise, evil world of "little else. But parasites or sub- parasites"? Erlich, Volpone 5 Mosca claims to be beyond "the belly, and the groin. Should we admire him for being beyond the bodily sins? The sin of a Trickster is Pride: he glories in the superiority shown in fooling others. Mosca here is very much the Vice. He weeps near line 17 ; he catalogs the terrible things he's done , and he hypocritically deceives a good person, with luck, to lead that good person to do evil Does it undercut the theme, "You can't cheat an honest man" to have Bonario fooled pretty easily?
Is Bonario fooled? Is that the function of these "inverted," or abnormal, characters in Volpone?
Volpone; Or, The Fox
If not, what are they doing in Volpone? That's a real question for me. Is the joke, then, that she's a failed scholar? Or is the joke a straight-forward sexist one: it's funny that a woman wants an education at all? Additonally, is she right about the Italians? She does mention all the major Names.
Note how he gets rid of Lady Pol; it helps unify the plot.
Still, in your production of Volpone, would you retain the Would-be's? Sir Pol and Peregrine's subplot may be insufficiently linked to allow BJ the unity of action he claims implicitly in claiming to abide by "needful" rules.
Lady Pol is a fourth gull when three would be enough for Volpone and Mosca to cozen. Is it well to have a satirically drawn woman to balance Celia's Good-Girl perfection?
Like Volpone is less a Comedy than a Satire. Note the "Nominalist" arguments Corvino makes on Celia's honor: "Honour! Might Bonario be? Machiavelli's Mandrake, the happy ending comes when the wife finally decides that her husband is intent on becoming a cuckold and goes along with taking "A worthy lover"; is Volpone a similar kind of dramatic fabliau? How do you feel about her theoretical argument that wrath "is a vice comes nearer manliness" than lust?
About her yet again desiring death or other nonsexual horrors over dishonor? Wrath, indeed, is more "humane" in the list of the 7 Deadly Sins than Lust, the lowest and most beastly; still.
Who'd've thought he'd get involved?
His stupidity is rather willful and requires a lot of work, on his part as well as Mosca's. Note that this is the first explanation we get of why Mosca brought Bonario to Volpone's. Do you believe it? Is Mosca just improvising a plausible explanation in his world-view, and Voltore's! Note Sir Pol's "wise" advice, esp. Note also Sir Pol's politic projects.
Lady Pol then appologizes and asks Petegrine to "use" her, which Peregrine takes as a sexual come-on, for which he blames Sir Pol as "sir Politic Bawd," pimping for Lady Pol. Erlich, Volpone 7 4. Keep your eye on 4 Avocatoro Judge 4. How do you feel about him? At the productions I've seen, "There is no shame in this now, is there?
Volpone: A Critical Guide
En route, he visits William Drummond of Hawthornden, and Drummond records in detail their conversations. Jonson still engaged as a court masque-writer, but starts to become a more marginalized figure. The New Inn performed. It fails on the stage. Jonson writes the Ode to Himself, condemning the audience for being unworthy of the play. Volpone and Doctor Faustus are similar, too, in that neither is entirely typical of the oeuvre of the writer that they represent.
In a similar way, the very qualities that make Volpone particularly teachable also make it something of an oddity in the Ben Jonson canon. Set as it is in a brilliantly sketched, jewel-like Venice, it omits the mess, complexity and specificity of the contemporary London that Jonson loved and that forms the basis for the three other great comedies, Epicoene, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair. This seems a strange thing to say of a play in which riches are so obviously centre stage from the opening tableau — Good morning to the day; and next, my gold: Open the shrine, that I may see my Saint.
But in Volpone, none of the main characters are poor in this sense.
Volpone; or, The Fox (Webster's Thesaurus Edition)
That doubleness is what makes it slippery and fascinating. But in Volpone, where no-one seems in danger of actually going hungry, money has a rather different value.
Instead, riches in Volpone become something more abstract and symbolic, an aspect of the personified Goods of the morality play tradition rather than part of the complicated daily struggle to survive and thrive. But it still makes it somewhat untypical of Jonson as a whole. One further aspect of this deviance should be mentioned: the question of character and sympathy. Volpone appears to be an almost textbook example of this — austere in its development and elaboration of the obsessions of Volpone, Corvino, Sir Pol and the rest.
Moreover, it brings all of these humours to a courtroom, and subjects them to correction, shame and punishment. Generalizations about Jonson based primarily on Volpone will, necessarily, miss the things that make Volpone itself a strange and difficult play within the Jonson canon. Through the critical history of the play until the end of the last century, Thompson traces the hugely different reactions that this text has provoked.
The contributions of Thompson and Yearling prepare the ground for Robert C. These are, as Evans says, exciting times to be a scholar. The first two presented here offer two radically different approaches, in their voice, their reference points and their critical procedures, and yet they share a common concern with Volpone and performance, Volpone and theatricality.
First, James P. On the contrary, argues Bednarz, the early performances of Volpone in the university towns of Oxford and Cambridge are mentioned prominently in the first quarto of the play and Bednarz offers, too, a careful sifting of the historical evidence concerning those two early performances. Instead, they feel theatrically exhausted, piqued, and delighted [. Fortunately, one does not have to decide that one approach is right and the other wrong.
In a sense, Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 in this section — those of Frances Teague and Stella Achilleos — also form a pair with one another, both, in different ways, approaching the question of what used to be called the historical context of the play. And yet this is not a return to old-style historicism: her concerns are grounded in recent theoretical and imaginative work on the nature of captivity.
Teague traces, through the play, the themes of imprisonment, surveillance and power, adroitly relating them to both historical and biographical anchoring points. As Achilleos describes, ageing — that long-taboo topic which our culture is itself now having to engage with harder than before — is one of the central themes of the play, focused upon Corbaccio, the old man who hopes to become young again. In the final contribution to the volume, Matthew C.
To close this introduction, one might consider a particularly interesting moment from Volpone. Perjured yourself? Go home, and die, and stink. Others are struck by the lusciously, ludicrously decadent pleasures that Volpone offers to the horrified Celia.
But for me, a really breathtaking moment in the play is this one. The language too is a thing of beauty. You can command someone to kill themselves, but you cannot really command them to die: and you certainly cannot command them to decompose. The joke, if joke there is in such a splendidly bleak line, is an almost Beckettian one about the inability of human will truly to compete with those processes of mortality that Volpone has spent the play faking.
And that, for me, is the really interesting thing about this speech: the tension between the crisp, masterly language and the complexities and tensions of its implications. Evans has explored. Mosca appeals, in this speech, to senses of personal integrity and family bonds which he himself has long since forfeited, and does he do so in a spirit of tranquil cynicism, or with some confused sense that it still ought to matter?
That last explosion of frustration, and the complexities it leaves hanging in the air like the scent of decay, suggest that this speech does provide interiority and complexity of just the sort that it is often taught that Jonson does not engage in.
As the chapters in this volume show, I hope, Volpone has many pleasures to offer, and many that still await exploration. Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ben Jonson. Every Man In His Humour, ed. Ben Jonson, Ben Jonson ed.
Herford, P. Simpson, and E. Simpson Oxford: Clarendon Press, —52 , John Milton, Paradise Lost, ed. Fowler, 2nd edition London: Longman, , Robert C. The play has been seen as the greatest masterpiece of the best writer of his time, but also as the laborious contrivance of a pedant. This somewhat opaque passage is the theoretical heart of the Epistle.
By emulating the artistic forms and conventions of classical drama, Jonson asserts, he has produced a comedy which fulfils the highest purpose of literature, which is to teach its audience the right way to live. Finding it necessary to choose between moral purpose and formal perfection, he has decided that the former is more important. The first published allusion to the play came as early as ,14 and through the seventeenth century its characters appeared in various contexts as archetypal, almost folkloric figures.
The ensuing political incident contributed to the fall of the Whig government in Volpone, they implied, was continuing to perform precisely the function its author had intended, exposing folly and vice to healing laughter. Beaumont, and Dr. Consequently, praising him is often a way of finding fault with later writers, actors and audiences. In a sense, Dryden touches on the same crux that had troubled Jonson: why disrupt a perfect comic structure in order to bring about harsh punishments for the tricksters?
In passing, however, Dryden recognizes a different justification, based not in didacticism but in the peculiarity of Volpone as a character.
Critics still professed admiration, but it was accompanied by little enthusiasm or sympathy. The habit of listing minor imperfections grew into a suspicion that the play was more profoundly flawed. For its revival at Covent Garden in , the play was altered to minimize its well-known structural faults50 and expurgate its blasphemies and obscenities.
It might also soon be unperformable. As the nineteenth century proceeded, Volpone found itself in an inhospitable critical landscape, stranded by the rejection of neoclassical values that was one aspect of Romanticism. Symonds73 and Algernon Charles Swinburne signalled the beginnings of a critical renaissance.
Literature was as living a thing to him as life itself. He used his classical lore not merely to give form to his verse, but to give flesh and blood to the persons of his plays. He could build up a breathing creature out of quotations. He made the poets of Greece and Rome terribly modern, and introduced them to the oddest company.
His very culture is an element in his coarseness [. There is a brutality, a lack of sentiment, a polished surface, a handling of large bold designs in brilliant colours [. Though he is saturated in literature, he never sacrifices the theatrical qualities — theatrical in the most favourable sense — to literature or to the study of character.
His work is a titanic show. Perhaps, Herford implied, the twentieth century was more attuned to Jonson than intervening periods had been. A study of his fortunes on the twentieth-century stage concluded that his satirical aggression and unsympathetic mode of characterization, anathema in the nineteenth century, had proved resonant in the twentieth, and that a culture which admired the work of Bernard Shaw, Evelyn Waugh, Edward Albee, Eugene Ionesco, Ezra Pound and Kurt Vonnegut was bound to rate Jonson highly.
But critics continue to engage with the play in moral terms, and often note the stringency with which it tests its audience. All the characters are loathsome except the young couple, and they are subnormal because they talk in a conventional poetic style; but Volpone is the most loathsome, as he blasphemes.
Jonson had a theory about plays, that they ought to make you sick of being wicked, and the reason why his plays are so good is that they make you so sick. They are written in poetry which is meant to excite contempt and nausea, and that is why it is such good poetry. Good people enjoy these plays very much, though they are in pain all the time, aching for the tortures to begin. If we notice the epilogue in which Volpone asks for our pardon, and consider his request seriously, we can begin to understand the play.Benedict Nightingale, Plays and Players, March But Jonson was on sound historical Thesaurus brilliancy: n, v brightness; n brilliance, lustre, luster, splendor, glitter, glory, radiance, splendour; adj, n gorgeousness; v gloss.
Every Man Out of his Humour performed, and printed the following year. As I have previously mentioned, although Aristotle suggests what became known as the law of time, Castelvetro, whose influence on Sidney affected Jonson, invented the law of place.
Studies in the Plays Norman: None of these plays met with any marked success, although the scathing generalisation of Dryden that designated them "Jonson's dotages" is unfair to their genuine merits. That suggests a lot of kissing and fondling and more: Yes, conscienceless Capitalism still performs a simple confidence trick on all of us. John Donne goes further, claiming that Jonson sets an example for lawmakers: First Fall of Volpone:
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