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Download Building Materials And Construction Books – We have compiled a list of Best & Standard Reference Books on Building Materials And Construction. Construction Technologu and. Building Materials Learning Limit º. º Training Module for Barefoot Work Book. Exercisel: Identify the construction materials. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Construction materials: their nature and behaviour / [edited by].

Mix the cement and aggregates together. When water is added to the mix, it starts a chemical reaction with the portland cement called hydration. It's this chemical reaction that hardens the mixture into concrete.

The process of hydration doesn't mean that the concrete is "drying out. Concrete will even harden under water, which is one reason it's an ideal foundation material. The principal factor in controlling the strength of concrete is the water-to-cement ratio — but consistency is also important. To build a uniform concrete structure, you need to create mixes with the same proportions of ingredients each time. Everything depends on the quality of workmanship. However, its tensile strength — the ability to resist stretching, bending, or twisting — is very low.

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That's why concrete must be reinforced with steel or some other product. Building codes throughout the country regulate the design of reinforcing in concrete structures. In earthquake zones or tornado-prone areas, they need additional engineered reinforcement.

It's a wise contractor who works with the code office and checks out the correct reinforcement requirements before starting construction.

Freezing and thawing are concrete's worst enemies, especially when it's in the curing stage. We'll discuss preventative measures to use in freezing temperatures later. Concrete can withstand a tremendous amount of heat. Because of its resistance to fire, it's the material of choice in fire-hazard areas. Concrete is fairly predictable.

Knowledgeable contractors can usually control the setting time with additives or placing and curing methods. Any contractor using concrete has to understand its variables. After all, once water is added to cement, it will harden.

You can speed up or slow down this process, but the bottom line is that the concrete will get hard. Hardened concrete can be strong, watertight, and resistant to the elements — or weak and unreliable. Storing Portland Cement An important point to remember is that portland cement is moisture-sensitive. You must be careful how you store it.

If kept dry, it will retain its quality indefinitely. But if stored in contact with damp air or moisture, portland cement will set more slowly and have less than optimum strength.

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Whenever possible, store bagged cement in a warehouse. Cover any cracks and openings in storehouses. If you have to store it outdoors, pick a shaded area, stack the bags on pallets and cover them with a waterproof covering.

Portland cement is the most active component of concrete, and usually the most expensive. Type II is a hydraulic cement that forms a water-resistant product as it hardens. To build a uniform concrete structure, you need to create mixes with the same proportions of ingredients each time. Everything depends on the quality of workmanship.

The compressive strength of concrete, measured by the pounds per square inch psi of pressure that cured concrete can withstand, is very high. However, its tensile strength — the ability to resist stretching, bending, or twisting — is very low. That's why concrete must be reinforced with steel or some other product.

Building codes throughout the country regulate the design of reinforcing in concrete structures. In earthquake zones or tornado-prone areas, they need additional engineered reinforcement. It's a wise contractor who works with the code office and checks out the correct reinforcement requirements before starting construction.

Freezing and thawing are concrete's worst enemies, especially when it's in the curing stage. We'll discuss preventative measures to use in freezing temperatures later. Concrete can withstand a tremendous amount of heat. Because of its resistance to fire, it's the material of choice in fire-hazard areas.

Concrete is fairly predictable. Knowledgeable contractors can usually control the setting time with additives or placing and curing methods.

Any contractor using concrete has to understand its variables. After all, once water is added to cement, it will harden. You can speed up or slow down this process, but the bottom line is that the concrete will get hard. Hardened concrete can be strong, watertight, and resistant to the elements — or weak and unreliable. Storing Portland Cement An important point to remember is that portland cement is moisture-sensitive.

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You must be careful how you store it. If kept dry, it will retain its quality indefinitely. But if stored in contact with damp air or moisture, portland cement will set more slowly and have less than optimum strength. Whenever possible, store bagged cement in a warehouse.

Cover any cracks and openings in storehouses. If you have to store it outdoors, pick a shaded area, stack the bags on pallets and cover them with a waterproof covering.

Portland cement is the most active component of concrete, and usually the most expensive. Type II is a hydraulic cement that forms a water-resistant product as it hardens. Selecting and using the proper cement is important in achieving the best mix at the most economical price.

Fortunately, the widespread availability of limestone, shale, and other naturally-occurring materials used in its production helps keep portland cement affordable. Different types of portland cement are manufactured to meet different physical and chemical requirements for specific purposes. Type I and II portland cements, which provide adequate levels of strength and durability for most applications, are the cements used most often for concrete.

However, specialized applications may require other cements that provide higher levels of certain properties. Using high-early-strength cements for pavement repairs and blended cements with aggregates susceptible to alkali-aggregate reactions are examples of such applications.

This gives them better control over the desired air content. But air-entrained cements can be useful under conditions where there's no way to measure the air content of fresh concrete. The availability of portland cements will be affected for years to come by energy and pollution requirements. In fact, increased attention to pollution abatement and energy conservation has already greatly influenced the cement industry, especially in the production of low-alkali cements.

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Using high-alkali raw materials in the manufacture of low-alkali cement requires bypass systems to avoid concentrating alkali in the clinkers, which consumes more energy. If the type of cement you need isn't available, you can get comparable results by modifying available types. High-early-strength concrete, for example, can be made by using a higher content of portland cement or by using admixtures such as chemical accelerators or high-range water reducers HRWR.

There are several benefits to using blended cements in concrete. These include: Concrete mix plants can provide specialty concrete mixes to s your specifications by adding admixtures at the plant. Modified Portland Cement Expansive Cement Expansive cement increases in volume significantly more than plain portland cement during the early hydrating period.

Concrete placed in an environment where it loses moisture will begin to shrink. The amount of shrinkage depends on the characteristics of the materials, mixture proportions, and the placing methods.

When subgrade friction, reinforcement, or other parts of the structure restrain concrete slabs, drying shrinkage will induce tensile stresses.

These stresses usually exceed the concrete's tensile strengths, causing cracking. Using expansive cements can compensate for the drying shrinkage stresses. This minimize cracking in concrete slabs, pavements and structures.

That's why expansive cement is also called shrinkage-compensating concrete. Type K: Contains anhydrous calcium aluminate Type M: Contains calcium aluminate and calcium sulfate Type F: Contains tricalcium aluminate and calcium sulfate. White Portland Cement White portland cement is a true portland cement.

The only significant difference is its color. White portland cement is made to conform to the specifications of ASTM C, although no specification provides for white portland cement specifically. The controlled manufacturing process yields a finished product that's white because it contains little or no iron and manganese oxide, the substances that give cement its gray color.

Use it wherever you need white or colored concrete or mortar. White portland cement is used primarily for architectural purposes, such as:. Selecting Cement Materials To select the best cementitious materials for a concrete structure, you'll have to consider the exposure conditions, type of structure, the characteristics of the aggregates, availability of the material, and the method of construction.

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The type of structure must be classified as either mass or structural: Mass concrete is any extremely large volume of concrete, such as in a dam, where special measures have to be taken to minimize cracking from the heat generated by hydration and the attendant volume change. Structural concrete is concrete that will normally be placed into reinforced structural elements such as beams, columns, walls, and slabs small enough that heat generation isn't a problem.

Of course, all concrete is considered structural, since it's at the core of most construction projects.

However, many features of a structure fall into the two extremes — either strictly massive or flexural. The designer needs to determine if measures should be taken to limit the heat generation.

Flexural concrete has reinforcing metal or fiber-reinforced polymers FRP embedded in the concrete, and is designed by engineers to resist bending forces.

One of the most important factors in the quality and economy of concrete is the quality and quantity of the aggregates. You need to use quality aggregates to get good concrete.Although the amount of illuminance required to enable a particular activity to be carried out is a subjective measure, depending largely upon the task, and the age and state of health of the Table 1.

The properties of the various types of lamp available should be examined to establish the most appropriate for any particular site requirement. Have a great day! JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser.

Leave this field empty. This comprehensive concrete manual has the information you need, both the tried-and-tested methods and materials, and more recent innovations. If properly reinforced, it supports tremendous loads and stresses.