ECONOMIA BRASILEIRA CONTEMPORANEA VASCONCELLOS PDF
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AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. And out of the four administrative regimes existing, only two are really implemented to legalize mining operations: A second set of actions is undertaken to encourage cooperation between local actors. Firstly, it consist in constraining them to adhere to representative association or cooperative.
This process also enable to record them in view of a future larger formalization of current activities. In Nova Era, an emerald extraction area, a cooperative exists since As emeralds are very precious gems, illegal miners regularly invade areas controlled by authorized mining companies. Gem fairs are also organized each year and lapidary or jewelry courses are becoming more common and obtaining a great variety of supports: Besides providing training and apprenticeship, these group teaching classes enable to strengthen local networks as they are mainly frequented by gem industry professionals.
As a consequence, projects are usually carried out by various institutions simultaneously without a good governance and are not very efficient. The current results are far from being the ones expected. Among the positive achievements, action plans to fight illegal mining seem to be successful, associations and gem fairs created a couple of decades ago still existing, and state institutions are increasingly present.
However numerous adverse impacts can be observed. Indeed, extractives activities have declined significantly and a majority of the policies carried out were unsuitable to fulfill objectives set out.
The unwanted consequences of the programs developed by public authorities can be grouped and discussed as follows a Intensification of struggle against illegal mining is correlated with a severe decline of the regional gem mining and industry Fight against illegal extractives activities seems to have been done at the expense of the sector's growth.
The increasing pressure from the authorities led some miners to withdraw from the industry as mining and other local activities related to gems have declined significantly in the past couple of decades.
Despite the lack of statistics available, according to a majority of actors involved in the sector, around eighty percent of mining operations have closed down since the early 's. Most of the time, illegal extractive activities shut down were not replaced by legal ones mainly because administrative costs to legalize such activities are usually inaccessible for these low income populations.
Besides, the economic decline of gem mining industry increases social exclusion as extractions are made by people with low socio-economic status whom do not have other work opportunities and became attached to a miner community Heemskerk, Besides, workers feel that repressive actions undertaken for environmental reasons are unfair, as they usually run small-mining spaces with limited environmental impacts. In fact, in case of inspection visits, local social networks and large distances contribute to defeat most of the controls6.
Warned in advance about the arrivals of the authorities, informal mines are usually cleaned out for a few days. Sometimes, officials in charges of regulatory operations even confess that they decided not to close illegal mines as in certain areas entire families are surviving thanks to mining activities only. Regulatory authorities claim acting mainly on complains coming from legal concurrent neighbors. Some of them frequently use the law to reduce the global supply and rise prices, or to obtain the right to excavate deposits that would have been discovered by illegal miners who cannot afford to pay the legalization process.
However, heavy administrative processes can also be a real problem for legal miners. They must undergo a 'research phase' during which it is forbidden to sell the stones extracted. The lack of coordination between actors and institutions is often pointed out to explain the situation. Difficulties are further exacerbated as no association — private, public or criminal — dominate significantly the sector at a regional level.
Even locally, agents belonging to same branch of a sector activity can be represented by several associations. Thus, they are organized in a multitude of small social networks and various associations may even represent a same branch of activities in a single city.
Power is completely fragmented, governance almost non-existent, and actions cannot rely on a pre-existing social structure. Associations are not really taking part to public actions initiated and most of their members do not usually renew their annual registration. For instance, less than one hundred miners out of a few thousands the region are presently listed as members of the Sindicato Nacional dos Garimpeiros SNG.
The permanent climate of mistrust between the different micro-actors of gem industry or with the authorities complicates the relations between agents and prevents positive progress. The most important entrepreneurs of the region are also usually very critical of the projects implanted and often put even into question the work done by officials. They particularly point out that aims of the projects are often set up by non-specialists and that the choices undertaken can be unadapted.
Eventually, according to one association from another economic area, the municipality sometimes diverts funds coming from foreign countries to use it to offset budgets. At last, even if professional courses are numerous, students are generally little assiduous: It may be tempting to blame public institutions for the decrease of mining activities.
Although the real impact of actions led to formalize mining activities and support others remains difficult to quantify, their consequences seem even so particularly limited. In fact, environmental police insures that for the past years repressive actions did not increase and, indeed, it is sill very easy to access illegal excavation camps.
Miners explain they are not worried about control and they do not really need to hide from authorities as in some areas controls remain rare. More generally, development actions plans are recognized as too inconstant, isolated and confused to exert any significant positive effect on this sector, and their mains actors are hardly concerned and involved in such initiatives.
Thus, authorities may not be the main responsible to explain the decline of activities. The decrease of local activities coincides indeed with a deep turn of gems industry at world-scale in the 's shaken by the rise of China.
Completely absent from the market before, the rise of the Asian country changed completely the organization of international flows.
Along with India, it imposed itself as the main gem cutting center of the world and also as one of the largest gems consumer and Reys, In , the country became the main partner of Brazil which exported to China a quarter of the value of its gemstones excavated — mostly uncut and half if including Hong-Kong — and 60 percent of the net weight source: The rise of the Chinese industry — difficult to compete with because of its large scale production and low cost — coincides with the decline of Minas Gerais colored gems cutting sector.
But more widely, others factors may have influenced the decline and can be pointed out: Furthermore, Brazil is not the only country to extract gems from its subsoil. New findings around the world, especially in other developing regions in Africa, may have affected punctually the prices of some gems, making their excavation not worth to earn a living in others areas like Brazil.
Finally, democratization of technologies as Internet and digital cameras has seriously upset way of trading. They were particularly numerous in Minas Gerais, and most of the remaining traders still don't even have an email address.
As mentioned earlier, technology is threatening the jobs of small traders and Asian countries have become major competitors for the gem cutting. How to explain then the fact that local extractions have seriously decreased as it is pointed out by everyone engage in mining or others gems activities?
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It may paradoxically be due to economic growth and the improvement of living conditions Canavesio, In the last years, several regions of Brazil experienced economic development leading to social improvements and new opportunities. Before, local middle-classes could financed easily and regularly gems prospects operations, but now economic dynamism offers them new and less risky investment possibilities. The economic growth had also positive effects on employment, the local populations were able to chose less dangerous or exhausting jobs than mining for a same pay.
Old miners usually do not desire that their children choose the same job that they have done. Young generations do not seem willing to follow the same path than their parents anyway and aspire to modern life. Conclusion This case study highlights the difficulties of an emerging country's authorities in combining the control and the development of an extractive sector such as gem mining, and points out unsuspected factors with negative trend.
It underlines that whether action plans to fight illegal mining and protect the environment seem to have been partially successful, they may have been done at the expense of the sector's growth. Indeed, as a result of authorities pressure, mining and other local activities related to gems have declined significantly in the past decade while actions meant to strengthen local industries have been generally useless to curb the trend.
Even worst, in many cases, inadequate measures encouraged illegal behaviors making policies unadapted. The analysis underline that the decline may have however also been affected by other factors.
For such export sector as the gems industry, international competition is a very important matter in which the region sector too little industrialized and suffers of a lack of competitiveness to play another role as extracting.
As observed in others industries, expansion of emerging economies like China and India in the last decade have put upward pressure to expand the demand for raw material and energy supply Niquet-Cabestan, ; Hugon, and have relegated countries blessed by natural weatlh as Brazil as just suppliers of primary resources.
But, the decline of gem mining within the region can probably, most of all, be linked to the growth of its economy. The improvement of living conditions, as the economic growth, gave populations others less dangerous or exhausting work options than mining and have offered to local investissors new and less risky opportunities to fructify their capitals.
UNESP, p. Aknin, A. Growth and Development. Westport, Conn: Praeger, p. Cornejo, C.
Bebbington, A. London, New York: Routledge, p. Brunet, R. Belin, p. Canavesio, R. Cassiolato, J.
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Natural Resources Forum, vol. Perspectiva, p. Latouche, S. Tiers Monde, vol. ABC Editoria, p.Daniel rated it liked it Jun 06, The quantity of officials is often described as insufficient to accomplish such mission.
Belin, p. New findings around the world, especially in other developing regions in Africa, may have affected punctually the prices of some gems, making their excavation not worth to earn a living in others areas like Brazil. Not Enabled Enhanced Typesetting: Patricia Aguiar rated it it was amazing Jul 29, Other editions.
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