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This necessary delay has boosted the sales of English language editions of the books to impatient fans, in countries where English is not the first language. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bookseller list in France. The high profile and demand for a high-quality local translation means that a great deal of care is often taken in the task.
In some countries, such as Italy, the first book was revised by the publishers and issued in an updated edition in response to readers who complained about the quality of the first translation. In countries such as China and Portugal, the translation is conducted by a group of translators working together to save time.
Some of the translators hired to work on the books were quite well known before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev , who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. Golyshev was previously best known for having translated William Faulkner and George Orwell ,  and was known to snub the Harry Potter books in interviews and refer to them as inferior literature.
The Turkish translation of books two to five was undertaken by Sevin Okyay , a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.
Oddly enough, it has been difficult to accurately determine with any degree of certainty exactly how many languages Harry Potter has been translated into. As best as can be determined as of , The Philosopher's Stone has been officially translated from the original English into 75  other languages, the most recent being Hawaiian, in August , preceded by Scots, [note 1]  which was released on 23 November Rowling's   sites have recently stated that the books have been translated into 79 languages their count would now likely be 82 with the subsequent release  of Hawaiian, the release  of Scots and a new Mongolian translation ;  however, it has been argued that number actually represents the number of authorized translations of The Philosopher's Stone plus the original English.
The 82 total does not include other linguistically interesting language editions: There have been transliterations of translations into different scripts English Braille , Serbian Cyrillic , there have been major revisions of the Spanish and Italian translations and there have been any number of unauthorized translations. The government of Kazakhstan has ordered a Kazakh translation of the Harry Potter novels to be made  and the Government of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have also ordered a Tajik, Uzbek and Kyrgyz translation.
Some translations, such as those to the dead Latin and Ancient Greek languages, were done as academic exercises, to stimulate interest in the languages and to provide students of those languages with modern reading texts. The Ancient Greek version, according to the translator, is the longest text written in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD, and took about a year to complete.
Note that in some countries, such as Spain and India, the book has been translated into several local languages see section on publishers ; sometimes the book has been translated into two dialects of the same language in two countries for example, separate Portuguese versions for Brazil and for Portugal. The original British English versions of the book were published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury.
There is no complete official list of authorised translations currently available. Editions exist in the following languages including the original:. Matthew Fitt I . Mladinska knjiga . The impatience of the international Harry Potter fan community for translations of the books has led to the proliferation of unauthorised or pirate translations that are often hastily translated and posted on the internet chapter-by-chapter, or printed by small presses and sold illegally.
The work may be done by multiple translators to speed the process. Such translations are often poorly written and filled with errors. Cases have occurred in many areas of the world, but China is one of the most common areas of the world for unauthorised translations and pirated editions to be sold.
One notable case involved a French year-old who published serialised translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows online. He was arrested and his site was later shut down; however, the wife of the official translator noted that these works do not necessarily hurt the official translation.
Another example occurred in Venezuela in , when an illegal translation of the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix , appeared soon after the release of the English version and five months before the scheduled release of the Spanish translation.
The pirate translation was apparently so bad that the translator added messages, including "Here comes something that I'm unable to translate, sorry," and "I'm sorry, I didn't understand what that meant" in some sections. Two people were arrested in connection with the pirated version.
Another case involved the internet fan translation community, Harry auf Deutsch , formed to translate the Harry Potter books into German more rapidly. In some countries, when there were no authorised translations into the local language, translations not sanctioned by J. Rowling were prepared and published. Such was the case, for example, in Sri Lanka , where the books have been unofficially translated into Sinhala and possibly into Tamil.
In Iran , several unauthorised translations of the Harry Potter books exist side by side. According to one source, there may be as many as 16 Persian translations in existence concurrently.
Rowling's representatives did not respond to offers from Esperanto-USA to make the translation available for publication. An on-line petition aimed at raising interest in the Esperanto translation has obtained support from approximately individuals. Agents representing J. Rowling have stated in the past that they cannot and do not intend to prevent individuals from translating Rowling's books for their own personal enjoyment, as long as the results are not made available to the general public.
Whereas "pirate translations" are unauthorised translations of true Harry Potter books, "fake translations" have also appeared, which are published pastiches or fanfics that a foreign publisher has tried to pass off as the translation of the real book by Rowling.
There have been several such books, the most famous of which is probably Harry Potter and Bao Zoulong which was written and published in China in , before the release of the fifth book in Rowling's series, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. It is a common practice within the publishing industry to make minor changes in the text of books written in one region for publication in other regions. For example, there are a number of differences in American and UK English spelling conventions; generally publishers change the spellings to conform to the expectations of their target market.
Adaptation may also extend to vocabulary or grammatical choices that might impair legibility or impart some cognitive dissonance. Readers usually wouldn't be aware of the adaptations, but the choice to change the title of the American edition of the first Harry Potter book from Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone to Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone highlighted the practice and drew considerable attention.
The book's title was changed due to the American publisher's concern that children would be confused by a reference to philosophy.
Other translations have also changed the first book's title, for instance, the French translation which changed Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone to Harry Potter at the School of Wizards for the same reason as the American translation, citing that the reference to the Philosopher's Stone legend was "too obscure for a book aimed at the youth.
Other translations also have regional adaptations that have largely gone without much notice. The Spanish translation has been adapted to three regions: Europe, Latin America and Southern Cone .
Others translations have adaptations that were published seemingly to enhance the identity of minority communities of speakers: Montenegrin an adaptation of Serbian and Valencian an adaptation of Catalan. It is worth noting that some translations were completed when adaptations possibly would have been sufficient; for example, any of the Serbian , Croatian or Bosnian translations could have been adapted for each region; however, the complexities political and linguistic identity in the region probably precluded that choice.
The American English adaptations have by far received the most attention. A comprehensive list of differences between the American and British editions of the books is collected at the Harry Potter Lexicon web site. Although it is common to adapt any text from British to American editions  , in the case of the Harry Potter books, this standard practice has drawn criticism from readers who feel that the British English adds flavour to the series.
In an Associated Press interview, Rowling described how the alterations to the American editions came about:. Rowling pretended to bang her head against the sofa in mock frustration.
Her American editor pointed out that the word jumper — British for pullover sweater — means a kind of dress in American. She had had no idea. I wasn't trying to, quote, "Americanize" them What I was trying to do is translate, which I think is different. I wanted to make sure that an American kid reading the book would have the same literary experience that a British kid would have. The same article, however, points out that some British dialect was retained in the books, and in some cases certain phrases were replaced with more stereotypical British phrases, such as "spanking good" for "cracking.
Regional adaptations have sometimes—incorrectly—been referred to as "translations" as in the quote above ; however, the changes in the text of an adaptation do not nearly encompass the scope of a translation. A native speaker generally would not be able to tell the difference between two adaptations without careful reading.
A translation requires a translator who will be credited for the work—notably, an adaptation will by performed by an editor probably with the assistance of software and the original translator will remain credited as such. The Harry Potter series presents many challenges to translators, such as rhymes, acronyms, dialects, culture, riddles, jokes, invented words, and plot points that revolve around spellings or initials. These have been dealt with by various translators with different degrees of modification to the meaning of the original text.
The translator of the second book chose the translating strategy instead, and she renamed the houses, "Hufflepuff" becoming "Puffendui" and "Ravenclaw" becoming "Kogtevran" from the Russian word for claw, "kogot'".
Many of the nuances of British culture and language will be unfamiliar to international readers. Such things require careful and creative translating. Nonstandard English present in the book also had to be given careful consideration.
The character Rubeus Hagrid 's West Country dialect , for example, needed to be rendered in other languages to reflect the fact that he speaks with an accent and uses particular types of slang. This could mislead readers into thinking that these features of the house and boarding systems didn't exist in real-world British schools. The series involves many songs, poems, and rhymes, some of which proved difficult to translators. In the Taiwanese translation, the English words are simply put in parentheses.
Some acronyms also proved difficult; the abbreviations "O. Another issue was the translation of "The Mirror of Erised", since " Erised " is created by reading English "desire" backwards. The Finnish translation also follows this formula of reversing a word; the mirror is called "Iseeviot-peili" "iseeviot" being "toiveesi" "your wish" written backwards.
In the early Italian editions and in the movie, the mirror is called "Specchio delle Brame" "Mirror of Desires"; Italian name for the Magic Mirror from Snow White , later, it was renamed "Specchio delle Emarb" "Emarb" is "Brame" read backwards , a name based on the English one.
Areas in which anagrams are present do not make the transition easily into other languages. This has required translators to alter Riddle's name to make the anagram work. Sometimes translators manage to alter only one part of the name. For example, Tom Riddle's middle name of Marvolo was changed to Marvolodemus in the Serbian second edition; the first edition had lacked the anagram and the original name Tom Marvolo Riddle had simply been copied.
In the Bulgarian translation his middle name becomes "Mersvoluko" so the whole name forms an anagram for "And here I am, Lord Voldemort" instead of "I am Lord Voldemort" as in the original English. The change to Orvoloson was made in later editions. In other languages, translators replaced the entire name to preserve the anagram.
In Slovenian, both names are completely changed. When the name Mark Neelstin is rearranged in the scene, it spells Mrlakenstein. Because the books in Slovenia were released with a three-year delay, the translation of Voldemort is consistent throughout the series.
The film series corresponds with the book translation.
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
The Danish translation uses abbreviation and suffix to make the name work. The translation is Romeo G. This caused a name collision with the character Thorfinn Rowle , who first appears in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows , but who is not related to Voldemort.
Because of this collision, in the Hungarian translation his family name was altered to Rovel. These changes to the name created problems in later books however; in the English edition, a line of dialogue mentions that Tom Riddle shares his given name with the bartender of the Leaky Cauldron , and this becomes a plot point. However, this is not the case in all translations.
Rowling invented a great number of words and phrases for the books such as spells, incantations, magical words, items, and place names. Many of these words involve wordplay, rhyming, and historical references that are difficult to translate.
A large number of spells are drawn from or inspired by Latin, and have a certain resonance with English speakers due to its relatively large proportion of Latinate-derived vocabulary. For example, priori incantatem a spell which causes the last spells performed by a wand to be reproduced in reverse order would be familiar to many English-speaking readers as the words prior previous and incantation spell, charm.
To create a similar effect in the Hindi version , the Sanskrit , typical in mantras , has been used for the spells.
Some translators have created new words themselves; others have resorted to transliteration.
Names that involve wordplay, such as Knockturn Alley and Pensieve are also difficult to translate. The former, an unsavoury area in London's magical market, is semi- homophonous with "nocturnally," suggesting darkness and evil.
The latter is a magical bowl into which memories and thoughts can be placed and examined, and is a portmanteau of two words: Translators must creatively render such names. If the words are simply transliterated, the shades of meaning are lost; but, when new word-games are invented, they can end up sounding quite different from the original, and often reflect the translator's personal interpretation and preferences.
The German version of Pensieve is Denkarium , from denken , meaning to think , and the suffix -arium. The Norwegian translation of Pensieve is tanketank which translates to Thought-tank. The "Nocturnal" wordplay is not used in the Czech translation. Often, names in Harry Potter have historical or linguistic significance in English, which may create problems if the translator does not recognise or misjudges it.
Rowling commented on this phenomenon in Conversations with J. Rowling , in which she complained that the Italian translation of Professor Dumbledore 's last name was "Silente"; rather than recognizing that "Dumbledore" was an old Devon word for "bumblebee," the translator took the word "dumb" and translated it as "silent".
In some cases, English-speaking fans have sought clues to the story's mysteries by examining the way certain parts of the books have been translated in foreign editions. A case in point is the identity of a character mentioned by initials only in the book Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The English initials R. Fans took this to mean that the character was Regulus Black , the brother of Sirius Black ; when Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was published, this was revealed to be the case.
Similarly, the title for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix did not make it obvious whether the word "Order" referred to a group of people or to a directive. The information that it was a group of people was then determined by viewing the title in other languages. Rowling released an alternative title for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows for use by translators finding difficulty translating its meaning.
This variation was proposed and then approved by J. A few characters in the series are identified with a title and last name, or with a gender-neutral name. In some languages—for example, those where adjectives are gendered—it was necessary for the translator to guess the character's gender. The Hebrew translation initially made Blaise Zabini a girl, though the character was revealed to be a boy in later books.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Archived from the original PDF on Rowling Official Site". Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 12 December Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved The Language of Magic".
List of titles of Harry Potter books in other languages
Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 9 May Harry Potter in Turkish". Archived from the original on 30 September Potter translated to Scots Gaelic". Archived from the original on 17 December Archived from the original on 29 January Retrieved 29 January CS1 maint: Tengri News. Retrieved 19 February It's All Greek to Me".
Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 28 July Allen and Unwin. Archived from the original on 28 July Raincoast Books was the joint publisher of Harry Potter series in Canada in conjunction with Bloomsbury Plc of London from until The Canadian editions of all the Harry Potter books have the original British text intact, the same title and feature the original cover artwork.
New editions are only made if there are significant changes to the text or format. In new editions, J K Rowling has corrected some parts of the text.
South African Book Publishers". Archived from the original on 17 January University of Leeds. Philosopher's Stone book will be released in Armenian". Archived from the original on 27 October Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 1 October Sous presse aujourd'hui, dans les kiosques le 17".
Egmont Bulgaria. Archived from the original on 11 June Radio Prague. Archived from the original on Inquirer Lifestyle. Kapari-Jatta has discussed her translation effort in the popular-style fact book Pollomuhku ja Posityyhtynen Sizanur Rahman Title: Doctor's Chamber Title: Doctor's Chamber. PDF E-book. Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel.
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R Keao Nesmith . Cases have occurred in many areas of the world, but China is one of the most common areas of the world for unauthorised translations and pirated editions to be sold. University of Leeds. A History of Magic Warner Bros.
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