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1421 THE YEAR CHINA DISCOVERED THE WORLD PDF

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PDF | Book Review , The Year China Discovered the World by Gavin Menzies, Bantam Press, Review By Dan Gibson for Nabataea. Review PDF The Year China Discovered America, ^^pdf free download fleet the world; 3. had ever seen sailed from its base in China. THE YEAR CHINA DISCOVERED THE WORLD. Did Chinese sailors reach Australia years before Captain Cook? In October ,. Chinese.


1421 The Year China Discovered The World Pdf

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Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. A former submarine commander in Britain's Royal Navy, Menzies must enjoy doing battle. The amateur historian's. Gavin Menzies' The Year China Discovered America will re- mind readers the world, emphatically including the deep interiors of both North and South. Europe prior to 1 Bantam Press, London – New York – To- ronto – Sidney – Auckland. 2. The Year China Discovered The. World, l.c. pp.

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Gavin Menzies

If the server does not provide a quick download, then we remove it from the list. Does the electronic version of the book completely replace the paper version? Of course not. Best of all, if after reading an e-book, you buy a paper version of Read the book on paper - it is quite a powerful experience. All downloaded files are checked. The ensuing enquiry found Menzies and one of his subordinates responsible for a combination of factors that led to the accident, including the absence of the coxswain who usually takes the helm in port who had been replaced by a less experienced crew member, and technical issues with the boat's telegraph.

Menzies noticed that they kept encountering the year and, concluding that it must have been an extraordinary year in world history, decided to write a book about everything that happened in the world in the year Menzies spent years working on the book and, by the time it was finished, it was a massive volume spanning 1, pages.

Menzies sent the manuscript to an agent named Luigi Bonomi, who told him it was unpublishable, but was intrigued by a brief section of the book in which Menzies speculated about the voyages of Chinese admiral Zheng He and recommended that he rewrite the book, focusing it on Zheng He's voyages.

Menzies agreed to rewrite it, but admitted that he was "not a natural writer" and requested for Bonomi to rewrite the first three chapters for him. Menzies hired a room at the Royal Geographical Society , which convinced The Daily Telegraph to publish an article about his speculations.

Publishers immediately began courting Menzies for the publishing rights to his book.

At this point, Menzies's rewritten manuscript was only pages. Bantam Press stated that the book possessed enormous marketing potential, but considered it to be poorly written and sloppily presented. According to Menzies himself, they told him, "You know, if you want to get your story over, you've got to make it readable, and you can't write, basically.

The authors, however, relied entirely on Menzies for factual information and never brought in any fact checkers or reputable historians to make sure that the information in the book was accurate. After the rewriting process was complete, the book was at a publishable length of pages. In , Gavin Menzies challenges these routes, claiming that Zheng He's fleet actually travelled all over the world, visiting the Americas , the Caribbean , Greenland , the Pacific , and Australia , establishing colonies, and eventually circumnavigating the globe.

He has written 26 monographs and textbooks in his specialist field of mathematics.

Fomenko turned his hand to historical investigation in the s, undertaking research that was discouraged by the Communist authorities. Together with his colleague, Gleb Nosovskii — , whose qualifications include a PhD in physics and mathematics, Fomenko embarked upon a wildly speculative rewriting of world history.

Fomenko and Nosovskii have spawned a significant number of like-minded amateur historians, many of them scientists turned pseudo-historians like themselves.

According to Fomenko, chronolo- gists from the West elongated historical time with the aim of fabricating over-achiever societies like Greece and Rome, the alleged forebears of Western civilisation.

In reality, Fomenko claims, the famous ancient historical figures and empires are duplicates and triplicates, copies of the one historical personage known in different contexts and eras by different names. The chief culprit in this fraud was Scaliger, the famous Dutch scholar and astron- omer, who, Fomenko alleged, established the framework both for modern chronology and the fictional ancient world of Greece and Rome.

Fomenko trawled through the history of Eurasia, Byzantium and Rome to show that historians all around the world had appropriated the achievements of Russians to boost the prestige of their own national histories. In the early s, books, television programmes and a neophyte internet in Russia proclaimed the birth of a new science — New Chronology.

Professional historians scoffed, but instead of retreating to his scientific specialisations, Fomenko broadened his attack on conventional history with the result that book sales and his notoriety soared.

A print run of 10, copies for an academic book published in Russia is regarded as evidence of commercial success. Fomenko insisted to an increasingly receptive audience that the Mongol invasion of Russia was nothing but a civil war between Russian princes in which a small number of Mongols acted as hired mercenaries for both sides, that Columbus was a seafaring Cossack adventurer and that Ivan the Terrible was not one, but four different tsars.

Serious historians, most famously Lev Gumilev, have argued that Russian history was part of Eurasian history and that the various hordes that moved along the steppe — whether they were described as Mongols, Tatars, Kipchaks, Polovtsy or Turks had much more in common with one another and with the Slavs than modern historians writing in an era of nationalism and nation-states might think.

There are descriptions of Genghis Khan that suggest that he had blue eyes and it is widely accepted that the Mongol invad- ers of Russia comprised mainly Turks and other steppe peoples recruited during the long march to Kiev Rus.

The Mongol invaders of Russia did not write down their history — almost all of what we know about the Mongols comes from foreigners, while relatively few of their descendants and little of their language survives in the Russian lands that conventional history claims was part of the Mongol Empire for two hundred years. If the Mongols, as Western historians claim, viewed Russia as the periphery of their empire, why did they welcome Alexander Nevskii, the most famous mediaeval Russian warrior, into their horde as the adopted son of Batu Khan?

Fomenko turned Gumilev on his head by arguing that the commonali- ties that linked the steppe peoples with the Slavs constituted strong evidence that these were all elements of a single empire, the Russian Horde.

Read 1421: The Year China Discovered The World PDF Online

The first academic historians of Russia were Germans hired by the Romanovs, a dynasty whose Westernising tendency was most apparent during the reign of Peter the Great. There have been complaints ever since from Russian scholars that the Germans tended to underrate the state-building capacities and civilisational level of the Slavs. He is not by training a historian; but he does have academic credibility and a capacity to use science, or at least scientific jargon, to push conventional historians out of their comfort zones.

He has conjured into existence not just a good story, but also a story that is in tune with the zeitgeist, at least from a Russian nationalist perspec- tive. It is a story about a magical Russian past and a paradise lost.

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The villains are Western academics and their local accomplices in the Western-oriented Russian elite. The number of New Chronology publications has increased exponentially despite, or perhaps because of, the fact that Russia has begun to regain its lost prestige and confi- dence in the Putin era.

Fomenko has been able to expand his readership through the building of a community of like-minded supporters and friendly critics who have used the latest technology to preach the message. When criticised or attacked, New Chronol- ogy writers mostly graciously defer in the face of charges that cannot be easily countered, while manoeuvring the debate on to their own territory when an opportunity arises. In particular, Fomenko uses mathematical and linguistic evidence to awe his opponents.

The first includes amateur historians, lay readers and enthusiastic supporters. The leaders in New Chronology along with their acolytes and neophytes hold annual conferences and meet- ings, and publish their own periodicals.

1421: The Year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies - PDF free download eBook

Fomenko offers, from the perspective of a Russian nationalist, a compelling picture of the ancient and mediaeval world. He has gained credibility from the fact that he has fought against the officialdom of the Soviet state and the Russian academy.

Conventional historians have found it exceedingly difficult to counter the public relations success enjoyed by New Chronology. They find themselves as astonished by the success of Fomenko as they are by the claims themselves. Yet, for his readers, Fomenko has breathed more life into historical debates than all of the Imperial historians and Marxist- Leninists put together. Menzies and the Chinese Discovery of the World Gavin Menzies is an unlikely historian, weird, pseudo or otherwise.

Whereas the available evidence indicates that the fleet sailed around the Indian Ocean, Menzies argues that it not only discovered America and circumnavigated the world but also sailed to Cairo and into the Mediterranean where an unspecified Chinese ambassador met the Pope in Florence.

His major achievement is to make his account of the Zheng He voyages appear to be not only plausible but also to cover it with a veneer of scholarly respectability. He has a number of techniques that allow him to attain that goal.

The most important thing to note is that Menzies has considerable freedom because much of the written evidence regarding Zheng He has been destroyed. This means that he is free to speculate using a range of other evidence, especially maps and a variety of physical and scientific evidence, especially that relating to DNA.

In the absence of other forms of documentary evidence maps and other forms of pictorial evidence become the crucial form of written evidence for Menzies. In he made use of a map made in that he claims contains some islands in the Caribbean.

In a similar fashion in he compares diagrams of Chinese and European machines and concludes that the only way that the Europeans could have developed their machines was after a Chinese visit in He uses DNA evidence in a similar fashion.

Then there is the variety of evidence that he presents, which makes any critical evaluation quite difficult.

For example, at the end of the documentary based on the book, Menzies is asked to answer a number of criticisms of his argument. There is no documentary evidence. He will only concede detail. Moreover, he has a powerful rhetorical strategy that enables him to defend his position.

His history is combined with a travelogue as he describes personal visits to central places in his story. On the one hand, he claims massive academic support from scholars, including some 30 from China. He lists pages of acknowledgements at the beginning of In the documentary he claims to have received 36, emails with evidence.

On the website he claims 13, subscribers to his newsletters and the support of experts. Menzies nevertheless craves academic recognition and respectability while also taking a populist approach. He has spoken at a number of universities, including the University of Melbourne, and more recently at Wittenberg College in and the tape of his talk at Wittenberg is available on the internet.

After all, he has sold over a million copies of worldwide. However, it is not clear the extent to which populism is anything more than a tactic and a marketing technique for Menzies.Issledovania — Moscow: Delovoi Ekspress, b ; A. Serious historians, most famously Lev Gumilev, have argued that Russian history was part of Eurasian history and that the various hordes that moved along the steppe — whether they were described as Mongols, Tatars, Kipchaks, Polovtsy or Turks had much more in common with one another and with the Slavs than modern historians writing in an era of nationalism and nation-states might think.

He is best known for his controversial book Bantam Press stated that the book possessed enormous marketing potential, but considered it to be poorly written and sloppily presented. Obviously, a successful work of pseudo history cannot be just any story; it has to be a good tale.

In the early s, books, television programmes and a neophyte internet in Russia proclaimed the birth of a new science — New Chronology. Upcoming SlideShare. A comparison with David Keys Catastrophe is illuminating. The fundamental assumption of the book—that the Yongle Emperor dispatched the Ming fleets because he had a "grand plan", a vision of charting the world and creating a maritime empire spanning the oceans—is simply asserted by Menzies without a shred of proof