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BD CHAURASIA HUMAN ANATOMY VOLUME 1 PDF

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BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. anatony book. He has written all the gross anatomy in 3 volumes. The first one is called BD Chaurasia human anatomy volume 1 pdf which consists of Upper. This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy.


Bd Chaurasia Human Anatomy Volume 1 Pdf

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1: Upper Limb Thorax [B. D. Chaurasia] on olhon.info *FREE* Human Anatomy Upper Limb Thorax is a comprehensive book for undergraduate students of. olhon.info i am attaching the links of BD Chaurasia books. BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF Download Direct Links [ALL VOLUMES]. In above mentioned link, you will find the PDF Copies of BD Chaurasiya Human Anatomy Volume 1. 1 Fourth Edition PDF by using our direct links. We have uploaded BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy Vol. 1 Fourth Edition PDF to our online repository to ensure.

The flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar head arises from the medial side of the olecranon process and from the posterior border 6 c. This is the growing end of the bone Table 2. The shaft and most of the upper end ossify from a primary centre which appears during the 8th week of development.

The articular disc of the inferior radioulnar joint is attached by its apex to a small rough area just lateral to the styloid process. The ulnar head of the pronator teres arises from the medial margin of the coronoid process. The flexor digitorum profundus arises from: The pronator quadratus takes origin from the oblique ridge on the lower part of the anterior surface.

Other Attachments 1. The extensor carpi ulnaris arises from the pos- terior border. The annular ligamentof the superior radioulnar joint is attached to the two margins of radial notch of ulna. The interosseous membrane is attached to the interosseous border. The capsular ligament of the elbow joint is at- tached to the margins of the trochlear notch. It forms a scale-like epiphysis which joins the rest of the bone by 16 years.

This implies that. Fracture of the olecranon is common and is i the trapezium. So preserve pronation and supination of the hand. As a corollary. Madelung's deformity is dorsal subluxation 1. The proximal row is convex proximally. The ulna is the stabilising bone of the fore. It has These ends of long bones which unite last with the a concavoconvex articular surface distally. It is actively growing part of the bone with rich blood. The trapezium is quadrangular in shape.

The olecranon shifts posteriorly and the Table 2. Each bone has 6 surfaces. The pisiform is pea-shaped and has only one In long bones possessing epiphyses at both of their oval facet on the proximal part of its dorsal ends. Dislocation of the elbow is produced by a fall on capsular attachment and the epiphyseal line at the the outstretched hand with the elbow slightly ends of humeral.

The triquetral is pyramidal in shape and has an isolated oval facet on the distal part of the Ossification of Humerus. The scaphoid.

The capitate is the largest carpal bone. Identification 2. These relations are disturbed in disloca. The proximal row contains from lateral epicondyles of the humerus. The hamate is wedge-shaped with a hook near radius and ulna are growing ends.

Metaphysis is the epiphyseal end of the diaphysis. Fracture capitate. Law of Ossification 4. The shaft of the ulna may fracture either sis of the bone if it is partly or completely inside the alone or along with that of the radius. Side Determination The direction of the nutrient foramen in these General Points bones. The lunate is half-moon-shaped or crescentic.

The epiphyseal line is the arm. On this foundation the end of the bone. Importance of Capsular Attachments and Epiphy. The distal row contains in the same order: At the end of the humerus.

BD Chaurassia Volume 1 (Upper Limb & Thorax)

The trapezoid resembles the shoe of a baby. Infections in this part of the bone are most 1. The distal row is convex proximally and flat distally. So infection in the joint may affect the metaphy- 2. Cross-union joint capsule. The carpus is made up of 8 carpal bones. The side can be finally determined with the nerve. The tubercle is directed laterally. The dorsal non-articular surface is always larger lies on the distal part of the palmar surface. The lunate.

The trapezium. The triquetral. The pisiform. Ossification of humerus. The hook projects from the distal part of the palmar surface. At the lowest part of Metaphysis is upper end mical neck. Epiphyseal line E. The capitate. It bears a small facet for the 4th metacarpal bone. L Result Humerus Laterally to the anato. Medial intracapsular through the olecranon epicondyle owns a fossa. Bones of the Upper Limb 27 Table 2.

The dorsomedial angle is the distal-most projection from the body of the capitate. The hamate. The trapezoid. All attachments are to these four pillars Fig.

Both epicondyles separate epiphyseal are extracapsular line Radius Attached to the neck of The head forms the Metaphysis is upper end the radius epiphysis partly intracapsular Radius Close to the articular Horizontal line at Metaphysis is lower end margin all around the level of the completely extra- upper part of ulnar capsular notch Ulna Near the articular Scale-like epiphysis on the Metaphysis and part of upper end surface of ulna upper surface of olecranon diaphysis is related to capsular line.

Relation of capsular attachment and epiphyseal lines Capsular attachment C. The tubercle of the scaphoid gives attachment to: The trapezium has the following attachments: Figure 2. The pisiform gives attachment to: These constitute muscles of thenar eminence. The triquetral articulates with the following bones: The lunate articulates with the following bones: The pisiform articulates with the triquetral. Hook of hamate iv The groove lodges the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis.

The trapezium articulates with the following bones: Articulations 1. The scaphoid articulates with the following bones: Bones of the Upper Limb 29 Digital nerves Branches to second and first lumbricals Communicating branch Branch to muscles of thenar eminence Median nerve Dinar nerve Fig. Median and superficial branch of ulnar nerves and thenar muscles. The capitate articulates with the following bones: The trapezoid articulates with the following bones: The head and shaft are flattened from side to side.

Compare with Fig.

Each bone has a head placed distally. The dorsal surface of the shaft is uniformly convex. The head and shaft are 1. The metacarpal bones are 5 miniature long bones. Arrangement of carpal bones in man. The dorsal surface of the shaft has an elongated. Hamate 2. The shaft tapers distally. The base is irregular.

The year of appearance of centre of ossification in the carpal bones is shown in Figure 2. The shaft is of uniform thickness. Scaphoid Triquetra!

Trapezium Pisiform prismoid. Lunate 2. The base appears to be cut sharply and obliquely. The heads of the metacarpal bones a form the knuckles. It ext end s mo re on the pal ma r su r- fac e tha n on the dor sal sur. It has an arti cul ar sur fac e wh ich ext end s mo re ant ero pos teri orl y tha n late rall y. The base has an elongated articular strip on V. The I.

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Palmar in- terossei arise from one bone each except the third Metacarpal metacarpal Fig. The lateral and medial sides The main attachment from shaft of metacarpals is of can be confirmed by the following criteria. Side Determination The proximal. The gated articular strip for the fourth metac- medial side of the base is non-articular and arpal.

The anterolateral surface is larger than the other attachments are listed below. Dorsal interossei arise from adjacent sides of two metacarpals Fig. Abductor digiti minimae Fig. Only the interossei arise from it. With the trapezium. Articulations at the Bases serted on the dorsal surface of the base. First palmar interosseous Adductor pollicis Medial Sesamoid bones First dorsal interosseous. Palmar Fig.

Dorsal interossei. Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal is which supports the sensitive pulp of the fingertip. These also 3. Direct violence usu- ally displaces the fractured segment forwards. When the thumb possesses three phalanges. The palmar surface is centre each. The fist cannot 7. The thumb is forced into a semiflexed position and cannot be opposed. In the little finger.

In adults. The other metacarpals may also be fractured the palmar surface Fig. Then the medial branch has no 3. Tubercular or syphilitic disease of the metac- extend the insertion of lumbrical and in- arpals or phalanges is located in the middle of terossei muscles Fig.

The Proximal Phalanx distal epiphysis. Each phalanx has a base. The dorsal surface Ossification: The shafts ossify from one primary is convex from side to side. The shaft tapers towards the head. With the capitate. In the thumb. The Middle Phalanx plexus immediately upon reaching the i The flexor digitorum superficialis is inserted on medullary cavity.

It involves the anterior part of the base. A secondary centre for the head ap. In the middle phalanx. The Head 3rd year and fuses with the shaft at about In the proximal and middle phalanges the head has years Fig. With the capitate and the 2nd and 4th metacar. There are 14 phalanges in each hand. The i The fibrous flexor sheath is attached to the lateral branch has a distal epiphysis and three phalanges.

The Shaft With the hamate and the 4th metacarpal. Base of the Distal Phalanx be clenched. It appears during the 2nd. In the distal pha- langes. The Base iii The extensor pollicis brevis is inserted on the In the proximal phalanx. The shaft of each phalanx ossifies from a primary centre which appears during the 8th the lateral side of the metacarpophalangeal joint week of development in the distal phalanx. These are as follows.

They are variable in I Second lumbrical. Tendon of extensor 3.

Human Anatomy BD Chaurasia – Free ebook PDF Online Download

One sesamoid bone is found on the ulnar side of the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the little finger. Sometimes sesamoid bone may be found at middle phalanx. Less frequently. Extensor expansion their occurrence. The pisiform is often regarded as a sesamoid bone lying within the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris. One sesamoid bone is found in the capsule of digitorum the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. The secondary centre appears for the base durir years and fuses with the shaft during years Fig.

Note the insertion of the lumbrical and interossei muscles into it. The dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Indian Journal. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. Observations on the tilt of the glenoid cavity of scapula. The angles of scapula. The sexing of adult clavicles. A radiological study of the time of fusion of certain epiphyses in Punjabees. DAS SP. Sexing of the adult clavicle. Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society.

Times of appearance and fusion of epiphysis at the medial end of the clavicle. Radiological study of the ossification of the upper end of the humerus in UP Indian subject.

Identification of sex from the humerus. A study of ossification as observed in Indian subjects. Scapula showing a facet for the oniovertebral bone. Sexual dimorphism in scapula. Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences. JIT I. The torsion of the humerus in central India. Clavicle JrrI. A study of epiphyseal union for determining the age of South Indians. Additional Reading of Medical Research. Angle of humeral torsion. Sexual dimorphism of the human humerus. Observations on prenatal ossification with special reference to the bones of the hand and foot.

India Origin of human pisiform bone. I Bilateral asymmetry in surface area of carpal bones in children. Torsion in metacarpal bones and bilateral asymmetry. J Anat Soc. Journal of Anatomy London. Asymmetry in surface area of capitate and hamate bones in normal and malnourished children. Radiographic study of carpal bones in school children of south Orissa: Ossification of the bones of the hand. Variations in the metacarpal bones. The ossification centres of carpal bones. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences.

GARG K. Identification of sex from the radius. Identification of sex from the ulna. BAHL I. A radiological study of the times of appearance in UP Indian subjects. Ossification of the carpal bones: JIT I Other ribs can be identified by counting downwards from the second rib.

The bone is subcutaneous. The fossa overlies the xiphoid process. The following features of the pectoral region can be 2. In males. Both the joints are palpable because of the upward projecting ends of the clavicle Fig.

The jugular notch interclavicular or supraster- nal notch lies between the medial ends of the clavicles. The sternal angle thus serves as a landmark for identification of the second rib.

The clavicle lies horizontally at the root of the the lateral and middle thirds of the clavicle. In fact. The nipple is markedly variable in position in females. It is neck. It marks the manubriosternal joint. The stemoclavicular joint may be masked by the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

The sternal angle angle of Louis is felt as a transverse ridge about 5 cm below the jugular notch Fig. It is convex and superiorly by the clavicle. The infraclavicular fossa deltopectoral triangle seen or felt on the surface of body. The epigastric fossa pit of the stomach is the depression in the infrasternal angle. The deltoid is triangular muscle with its apex reach to the third point on the areolar margin.

The head of the humerus can be felt by pressing the fingers upwards into the axilla. The anterior posterior axillary fold.

From the lower end of this line. The anterior end of its medial border Give an incision vertically down from the first articulates with the clavicle at the point to the second which joins the centre of the acromioclavicular joint.

When the arm is Extend this incision transversely across the arm. The joint can be felt suprasternal notch to the xiphoid process in the because the clavicle projects slightly above the midsagittal plane. It forms the rounded Encircle the areola and carry the incision upwards contour of the shoulder. The midaxillary line is a vertical line drawn midway between the anterior and posterior axillary folds. The posterior end of its lateral border is sternal notch.

The fibrous septa given off by the fascia support the lobes of the gland. The mammary gland. The medial wall of the axilla is formed by the upper 4 ribs covered by the serratus anterior. Continue the line of incision downwards the humerus. The narrow lateral wall presents the upper part of the humerus covered by the short head of the biceps. Contents In addition to fat. It con- tains moderate amount of fat. Axillary arterial pulsations can be felt by pressing the artery against the humerus.

The axilla or armpit is a pyramidal space junction of upper one-third and lower two-thirds. Lastly give horizontal axillary fold contains the lower border of the incision from the centre of suprasternal notch to pectoralis major.

The tip of the coracoid process of the scapula from the cervical plexus and from the intercostal lies cm below the clavicle. The cords of the brachial plexus can also be rolled against the humerus. It can be felt on thoracic and posterior intercostal arteries. When the angle of the mouth is pulled down. The anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of 3.

They supply the skin over the upper half spinal nerves overlap. The cutaneous vessels are very small. This is because of the fact that follows Figs 3. Platysma The platysma is a thin. The medial. Tl have been 1. It may also be icular nerves are branches of the cervical plexus noted that normally the areas supplied by adjoining C3.

The lateral cutaneous nerves are accompanied by the lateral cutaneous branches of the posterior intercostal arteries. The platysma may protect the external jugular vein which underlies the muscle from external pressure.

The platysma is supplied by the facial nerve. The fibres of the muscle arise from the deep fascia covering the pectoralis major. The anterior cutaneous nerves are accompanied by the perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery.

The intercos- tobrachial nerve T2 supplies the skin of the floor of Cutaneous Vessels the axilla and the upper half of the medial side of the arm Fig. The second. Still deeper there are the parts of three muscles. The breast lies on the deep fascia pectoral fascia covering the pectoralis major. Axillary tail of the breast. The breast is separated from the pectoral fascia by loose areolar tissue. Deep Relations The deep surface of the breast is related to the following structures in that order Figs 3.

The foramen of Langer is an opening in the deep fascia. Extent i Vertically. Because of the presence of this loose tissue the normal breast can be moved freely over the pectoralis major.

This region is rich in modified sebaceous glands.

Deep relations of the breast. The skin: It covers the gland and presents the following features. The nipple is pierced by 15 to 20 lactiferous ducts.

Structure of the Breast The structure of the breast may be conveniently studied by dividing it into the skin. It is rich in its nerve supply and has many sensory end organs at the terminations of nerve fibres.

These become enlarged during pregnancy and lactation to. It has a few modified sweat and sebaceous glands. It contains circular and longitudinal smooth muscle fibres which can make the nipple stiff or flatten it. A conical projection called the nipple is present just below the centre of the breast at the level of the fourth intercostal space.

Apart into and along the ducts is facilitated by contraction from sebaceous glands the areola also contains some of myoepitheliocytes. The stroma: It forms the supporting frame- B. Each lobe is a cluster of alveoli. The lactiferous ducts suspensory ligaments of Cooper which anchor the converge towards the nipple and open on it. The the alveoli and around the ducts. Pectoral Region 41 form raised tubercles of Montgomery. In distended alveoli. Oily secretions lactiferous ducts by stratified squamous keratinized of these glands lubricate the nipple and areola.

The parenchyma: It is made up of glandu. The gland consists of fatty. Near its skin and gland to the pectoral fascia Fig. The smaller ducts are lined by The mammary gland is extremely vascular. It is distributed all over the breast.

It is columnar epithelium. The passage of the milk from the alveoli prevent them from cracking during lactation. It is partly fibrous and partly lar tissue which secretes milk. The veins follow the arteries.

The nerves do not control the secretion of milk. Lymphatic Drainage Lymphatic drainage of the breast assumes great importance to the surgeon because. Internal thoracic artery. The lateral thoracic. Secretion is controlled by the hormone prolactin. They first converge towards the base of the nipple where they form an anastomotic venous circle. The arteries converge on the breast and are distributed from the anterior surface.

The posterior surface is relatively avascular.

The deep veins drain into the internal thoracic. Nerve Supply The breast is supplied by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 4th to 6th intercostal nerves.

Lateral branches of the posterior intercostal arteries.

The superficial veins drain into the internal thoracic vein and into the superficial veins of the lower part of the neck. The nerves convey sensory fibres to the skin. Among the axillary nodes. A plexus of lymph vessels is present deep to the areola. The internal mammary nodes drain the lymph not only from the inner half of the breast.

Lymphatic Vessels A. Some further points of interest about the lymphatic drainage are as follows. The axillary lymph nodes. Finally it reaches the supraclavicular nodes.

The lymphatics pass radially to the surrounding lymph nodes axillary. Lymph Nodes Lymph from the breast drains into the following lymph nodes Fig. The deep lymphatics drain the parenchyma of the breast. They also drain the nipple and areola Fig.

Suitable for the Students of Medicine This book is very useful and suitable for the students studying in the field of medicine. Human anatomy is one of the most important subjects for students of medical colleges. Since there is a dearth of high quality books on the subject with an easy to understand language, B. Chaurasiya has compiled this comprehensive book on the matter of human anatomy. The book aims on giving the students a deeper knowledge of the subject in a consolidated manner.

Different and Unique Unlike most of the other books in the market that are more like journals and seem a tad difficult to understand, this book is more about explaining the concepts to the students and is completely user-oriented.

BD Chaurassia Volume 1 (Upper Limb & Thorax)

Chaurasiya happens to be one of the best authors on human anatomy and in this book, he has given all the little insights that are necessary for the student to understand the human body in an effective manner. In these regards, this book is very unique because it has been authored by a very renowned person in the field. Vast Portion Covered This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy. It comprises of highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs and so on.

Share this: Like this: Like Loading Previous Previous post: Next Next post: Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email required Address never made public. Name required. Post to Cancel. Post was not sent - check your email addresses!The lower four or 1. The Processes 1. Ruined my life. The lunate is half-moon-shaped or crescentic.

Radioulnar synostosis is also a rare condi- Fig. The Upper End 1. At their upper ends they meet the lower end of the humerus to form the elbow joint.