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The investigation of the cultural layers of technology forms the discourse which itself merits the at- tention as being the pop-cultural and media-historical revisionist one. Devel- oped through media, literature, theatre, film and series, its layers re write the desirable image of the past hi story.
The longed-for revisionist narra- tive, as the compilation of official and mythical mediated is conformed to the needs of the actual political and ideological framework. The new version works both ways in a sense of being determined by the collective memory, as well as adequately reshaping its narratives.
The interlacing of history and memory in media acknowledges the dual status of the texts as the memory of media and the media of memory. The media of memory that help us construct and transmit our knowledge and feelings about the past relay on various combinations of discursive, visual and spatial elements. Therefore, collective memories are multimedia collages consisting in part of a mixture of pictorial images and scenes, slo- gans, quips, and snatches of verse, abstractions, plot types and stretches of discourse, and even false etymologies.
Kantsteiner Employing various media that recorded and stored archaeologi- cal data over the last century, Ravna gora ofers a new version of the past WW2 recounted with the authority borrowed from the media to which new stories of the old themes are transferred.
The series becomes both meta- archive and self-recurring archive presenting the archive of public history, the history of media and ofering foundations for the memory construction. Concerning the history of WW2 in Yugoslavia, the eroded myth mainly refers to partisan- socialist-revolution one.
Nonetheless, after the s, by gaining the mythi- cal momentum, the revisionism allowed the TV series, in double entendre, to burst the bubble both of partisan myth and of the Chetniks it initially aimed to support and promote. The political moment involves two components that further tailor the narrative perspective. The first is the wave of historical revisionism and divi- sion of the WW2 past speeded up by the break-up of Yugoslavia.
The image of WW2 as of socialist revolution and anti-fascist battle is pushed into oblivion, while the image of the conflict as civil war comes to the front.
The partisans as the Yugoslav revolu- tionist and antifascist warriors, the perfect heroes of Yugoslav red westerns were abandoned and relegated into the background. The innovative histori- cal narrative got refined through time in response to the traumatic events. In Serbia, the process has been turned into the equalisation of the partisans and the collaborationists under the heading of anti-fascist, while in Croatia the NDH has been represented as the victim of the partisan terror Ramet All three time dimensions buckle into the circle of mythical time which rules in the Balkans.
With all narrative constituents, the TV series is smoothly recognised as popular, ideologically utilitarian nation- alist re interpretation of history and memory. The versions of history and memory competing with the, un- til then, official ones, are imperatively based upon true events and characters — as noted in the end — rewritten through the evocation of previous media re- cordings and stories now seen through both revisionist and mythical lenses. Ravna gora The ten episodes that have been broadcast are almost two thirds of the first part entitled Ravna gora of the announced and planned Dramatic Trilogy Dramska trilogija He wrote the scenario after the already mediated historical narratives, selected after biased criteria: The produced episodes tell the story of the first two months of the German occupation, the arrival of Chetniks to Serbia over the Drina river, and the foundation of their HQ at Ravna gora.
In a number of screen representations, he becomes the one chosen by the people to lead the people and preserve the nation and its mythomoteur. In the same screen realm, other articles, digitalized documents and you tube copies of the two films historical photos and documentaries are found, that became widely accessible in this way for the first time.
The important discovery that Klugmann was close to Cambridge Five and loyal to left and communist, became widely known only when put on screen in the new millennium. The same historical narrative as the topic of the book The Rape of Serbia: In the book review, with an indicative title Coffin for Mihailovic, David Binder11 claims that it The author documents how James Klugmann, a Communist, and Basil Davidson, a self-described leftist, both stationed in the Cairo headquarters of the Special Operations Executive, systematically discredited Mihailovic while undermining British material support for his forces.
Their methods included manipulating bat- tle maps and messages from the field, and attributing successful Chetnik military actions to the partisans. Neither spent any time with the Chet- niks. The Trap for the General, made as the politically correct action film, revolves around ethical dilemmas of the officer of OZNA Doktor, Bekim Fehmiu who orches- trates the whole undercover action. In The Last Act, the confrontation of partisans and Chetniks is implicitly positioned as the conflict of two equally morally righteous sides.
Fiction-faction combination — the tradition going back to the s and Kino Klub Beograd — is made as a seam- less switch between two kind of materials, highly narratively functional and imbuing fiction with the strong feeling of reality and authenticity of the past. In Ravna gora, these are mainly rough, mechanical cuts feebly alluding to the model of reconstructive fiction but managing to wake up the audience from the morose long establishing shots of fiction.
The process endows the fictional scenes with the impression of be- ing the newly found and immediately labelled archival documents or even newly made archival new media documents. The option of on-line viewing14 endorses the TV series as: For as soon as audio-visual trans- missions remain accessible online in digital archives, they constitute a challenge to the common practice of live broadcasting.
The series endlessly refers visually, verbally to the mythical past, ambivalent victory on Kosovo, but even more it evokes the hope and glory of Great War, which Serbia has to revive and continue.
The Great War with poetics of survival and life became new mythomo- teur of Serbs —replacing the mythomoteur of Kosovo as poetics of death — with the Chetniks placed close to its centre. Ravna gora sustains the change further connecting it with the contemporary imperative of survival and prog- ress founded upon politics of converging — and no more forking — paths to Europe and national glory. The mediated history and rearticulated memory eface the borders between fiction and facts turning into the demanded, utilitarian narrative of the past highly efficient in the ac- tual political context.
But smoothly and efortlessly, it charts the Chetniks narrative in the territory bordered by the four points: Binder, David. Burke, Peter. Jefrey K. The Collective Memory Reader. Oxford, pp. Universita di Udine, pp. Mythomoteur i Veliki rat. Zbornik radova FDU, no. Studije filma: Istorijski revizionizam na ekranu i medijska arheologija I: Ernst, Wolfgang.
Digital Memory and the Archive. University of Minnesotta Press. Fogu, Claudio Fogu and Wulf Kantsteiner. The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. Durham and London: Duke UP, pp. Graves-Brown, Paul. May, , pp. Kantsteiner, Wulf.
In Pursuit of German Memory: History, Television, and Politics After Auschwitz. Ohio UP.
Lebow, Richard Ned. Lees, Michael. The Rape of Serbia: New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Parikka, Jussi. What is Media Archeology? Polity Press. Ramet, Sabrina. Tosh, John. The Pursuit of History. Zbornik Fakulteta dramskih umetnosti no.
The evidence of files in archives knew it already: Narrative may be the medium of social memory; the medium of archives, though, is the alphanumerical mode in conjunction with ma- terialities of data support and logistical programs symbolic operators. The archive registers, it does not tell. Only metaphorically can it be compared to human memory — unless taken neurologically. Sitting in the dark in the house prison, he modestly longs to be able to go to his grandchild birthday.
The audience is prepared to be empathi- cal and is given arguments for the historical justification of the controversial figure. His historical role of the traitor or avior of the nation are still in the centre of the polemics between SANU, Serbian Government, Liberal party, Democratic Party and relevant historians.
As Berlin, simfonija velegrada Berlin: However, the brilliant shots of the cameraman, Mihajlo Ivanjikov, later would be used as the documentary shots inserted in the film of the epochs, sustaining the atmosphere, reconstructing the materiality of the era. U skladu sa definisanim ciljem, prate se: Neiger Tokom osme decenije U Radnja serije odvija se od kraja Narator u seriji Montevideo Bog te video daleko je neutralniji.
Osamdesetih godina Pravni fakultet, str Televizijske serije, Beograd: Clio Halbwachs, Maurice. Les Cadres Socioux de la memoire, Paris: Albin Michel Heking Ijan. Structure and Decoding. Lon- don: Fakultet dramskih umetnosti, dostupno na: On Media Memory: Collective Memory in a New Media Age. Palgrave Macmillan. Fakultet dramskih umetnosti, dostupno na http: Kreativni cenatar Notes: While revealing the skeleton one discovers the continuity of universal mechanisms that work in all times and that are similar to the mechanisms of literature.
The flesh of interpretation and imagination grows around the his- torical facts. That growth is stimulated by the personal and ideological drive of the individual journalist, but also by the contemporary political forces that influence the author, by the media that pay him and by the audience he is writing for. The excavation of the skeleton is easier nowadays thanks to the digitali- zation of the sources, in which the Dutch libraries have a leading role.
Dutch search engines and digital archives such as Delpher1 and the website of the Dutch Royal Library2 , in Flanders still under construction3, are a very help- ful tool for the media archaeologist. The layering of that fact took epic proportions over the last years. The act and the actor got the most diverse labels and initialized the development of very diferent process- es, ranging from war to friendships.
Looking at it from that perspective, the layers might be more interesting than the skeleton itself. The making of literature seems to be as creative as the making of history.
In a less bloody way, though. This paper is an overview of the methods and results obtained in the study Wat kwam er uit een schot? What resulted from a shot? The start The motivation for the authors to write a book about Gavrilo Princip was the centennial commemoration of 28th of June , the date of the assault of Sa- rajevo.
On that day, the Bosnian Serbian student named Gavrilo Princip killed the Austrian heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife during their visit to the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, in those days part of the Habsburg Empire. Moments after the assault, Princip be- came a hero to some, a murderer, a terrorist, an anarchist… to others. For the next century to come, Princip would get all kinds of labels, depending on the source or the ideological framework defining him.
Hence their Princip study is a continuation of the imagological research the authors have been doing since they started writing together. The authors try to establish bridges between their cultures of origin. With their projects they want to invite readers from both countries to get to know each other better and to overcome the stereotypes. Ten years ago, they published an open invitation to the Dutch and the Flemish audience to visit Belgrade.
The Kafana Tribunal Clio, is an alternative guide to Belgrade in the shape of a sociologically and anthropologically inspired encyclopaedia about the drinking and eating places of the Serbian capital.
This polyphonic citywalk, which includes recipees, drinking songs, poetry, reviews, inter- views, reportages, in memoriams, literary fragments, a vocabulary etc. The Princip book ofers an equally nuanced and broader picture of the assassin of Sarajevo.
Last but not least, the authors are always in search of unseen connec- tions between their countries. Princip appeared to be an excellent starting point for this: Furthermore both Belgium and Serbia were often mentioned together dur- ing World War I since their populations extremely sufered likewise from the respectively German and Austrian attacks and occupation.
To the public opinion both countries were regarded as the war orphans of Europe5. Other examples follow below. The method Journalistic research The authors were curious about how the Dutch and Flemish sources wrote about Princip and the assault of Sarajevo. During their research period the Dutch newspapers were luckily digitally available in the online archives of Delpher6.
This website prooved to be very useful thanks to its user-friendly search engine. But the Flemish newspapers were not yet digitalized, so the authors had to look for useful documents and quotations going to The Heri- tage Library of Hendrik Conscience in Antwerp. There the newspapers are kept on microfiche. In the meantime, the digitalisation of the Flemish newspapers has started and texts are getting to be available on websites such as Het Archief7.
Next to these archives there is of course the World Wide Web. Most contemporary newspapers and maga- zines have archives on their websites and other newspaper texts are easily found back on the Internet.
Finally, the authors could rely on their own private archives with news- paper cuttings from recent and older times, books and other publications. All these diferent kinds of relevant fragments and quotations the au- thors discovered are presented in the original spelling and together with clear references to their sources, so that the interested reader can always trace back the source, if desired.
Different kinds of sources Press quotes: The authors were equally interest- ed how diferent kinds of newspapers wrote about Princip in the days after the assault and how newspapers continued to write about him for the next century to come.
Apart from that, this Princip book contains dia- chronic references covering the whole 20th century, e. For example: Literature quotes. Next to the press quotes the book contains diferent quo- tations and themes from novels, poems, songs and theatre plays. This Eng- lish translation is by Peeters. They did a similar thing like the authors of the book did.
They staged a kind of bio-bibliography or Google session of Princip, often refer- ring to exactly the same sources the authors used for their book. Pictures and images. It is no surprise that Princip inspired illustrators and painters as well.
Thanks to the publication of his drawings in the U. To define this kind of source the authors invented a new term to label Princip-objects: The Inter0net, again, ofers a variety of Principalia ranging from underwear, T-shirts and cups Figure2.
Last but not least, the authors could rely on a very inspiring and helpful source of information, i.
Processing the sources Chronically and thematically. With such an amount of sources, it is necessary to select the most relevant information and present this in a clear and inter- esting way to the reader. An obvious way of structuring data fragments, quo- tations, images is the chronological one, clearly visible in the consecutive chapters of the book.
The book opens with a glance at the European situation on the eve of World War I and the Young Bosnian movement in the Yugo- slav region, by whom Princip was inspired and finally stimulated to commit his act. Towards the end of the book the authors enter the 21st century while reflect- ing on historical continuity; the most contemporary Princip labels have to do with terrorism, nationalism and capitalism.
Intersecting with this chronological storyline there is a thematical one. Every Princip reference is consciously or unconsciously written against the background of a specific ideology. At the beginning of the 20th cen- tury, the Low Countries were dominated by three main world views and this is clearly visible in the polemics and antagonisms among the newspapers af- ter the Sarajevo assault.
These ideological views are clericalism catholicism in Flanders and catholicism versus protestantism in Holland , socialism and liberalism. Hereafter, we will see a clear illustration of these antagonisms.
Some visions never change. The following cynical pressquote comes from the socialist De Volksgazet on 30th of July , two days after the Aus- trian war declaration to Serbia. It could have been written nowadays … And so them gentlemen capitalists are going again to The Hague, to the Peace Palace. And then again there will be wonderful speeches about the horrors of war and the necessity of peace. Then, they will have banquets with the representatives of the big nations, they will drink, they will cheer, and everybody will go again … and prepare for war … What hypocrisy!
What a bunch of felons! The Peace Palace at The Hague may safely be demolished. The story Literary non-fiction An important aspect of the book is its double voicedness. The central figure of Princip is looked upon from a double background, i. This is amidst the European commem- oration of World War I, that tends to be a rather local national or regional one, a unique approach.
First the authors thought of presenting their project as a short and sharp dialogue, followed by an anthology where the reader could read for himself the excerpts the authors were referring to. He wanted more atmosphere, more description, more personality. He wanted the authors to take the read- er along during the research in libraries, in classrooms, in cities.
This brought up the genre of literary non-fiction, a style that is particularly popular in the Low Countries after the succes of the book and a tv-serial of In Europe, a European history of the 20th century by Geert Mak The latest winner of the Nobel Prize of Literature, the Belarussian Svetlana Aleksijevitsj, writes literary non-fiction as well.
Reinventing literary non-fiction Although sharing the same point of view the authors wanted to keep their personal voice so they had to come up with an up-to-date form of di- alogue. For those sessions the authors chose four cities that were relevant for the story: Belgrade, Amsterdam, Antwerp and Brussels. In Amsterdam there is the anarchist bar De Bin- nenpret The Snicker , where the non-conformist customers have a library of anarchist books at their disposal.
Les petites histoires This multibiography of Princip meaning a collection of a century of Princip interpretations is intersected by numerous small anecdotes that the authors discovered during their research and that to their surprise are somehow con- nected to the Princip story.
Here are some examples. At the beginning of the book the authors describe the atmosphere at the eve of World War I; there was a certain enthusiasm among the Europeans, a discharge of feelings. The authors quote the German actress Tilla Durieux saying: These stones in the pavement commem- orate local Jews that were deported or forced to flee during World War II. Durieux was one of these refugees who fled to … Yugoslavia, where she saved Serbian children out of ustasha-camps by finding adoptive Croatian parents for them Stolpersteine in Berlin A century later a Belgrade exposition was dedicated to her.
The authors found an unex- pected bridge between their cultures when they discovered that at the time of her execution she was busy copying a painting by the worldfamous Belgian painter Rubens. Dutchman and author Wim Wagenaar is such a bridge figure, too. On a local cimetery one can find several Serbian graves dating back from the World War I-period.
The story of the buried remains to be reconstructed. The result: In this final chapter we want to give some striking examples of some of these slices, first from the 20th 4. This is often caused by internal and external antagonisms existing synchronically next to one another. Here we want to give some examples. Just days after the killings of Franz Ferdinand and his wife the Flemish newspapers were already at war ideologically ac- cusing each other of murder.
The catholic Handelsblad kicks of the polemics on 30th of June following translations by Peeters: The deeper causes of the assault undoubtedly lie with the ruthless socialist propaganda, instigated by Serbia and having rooted in a very strong group of the Serbian population within Bosnia.
The socialist Volksgazet 1st of July replies: That sewer newspaper of Antwerp found is necessary to write an editorial claiming that socialism has a reason to cheer after this double murder; in other words the socialists are to blame for this crime … Being rulers Ferdi- nand and Sophia prepared their own bad luck. The murder of Sarajevo is, to a certain extent, a suicide. The liberal Nieuwe Gazet adds on the 5th July: At the same time it is proven that among those little clerical newspapers, that held socialism and, help us God, even liberalism responsable fort his terrible crime, the ignorance might be even bigger than their bad faith … [They] almost blamed the liberal city council of Antwerp of being responsable for this royal murder.
Catholicism versus freemasonry. This caused wide dismay and protest in the international press. Except for some Dutch newspapers and magazines e. After the assault and the trial, Princip was sentenced to a prison cell in Theresienstadt Czech Terezin where he would die of bad conditions months before the end of the war.
Later on, two journal- ists gave two completely diferent eyewitness accounts of Princip in his cell. The Dutch magazine De Tijd 12th of August, tells of a healthy young man reading books in a comfortable room.
The Tilburgsche Courant 16th of July more veritably tells of a dark place where the terminally ill Princip is waiting to die. Flanders versus Belgium. Belgian journalists visited a Croatian clubhouse in the Belgian town of Seraing to interview them about the murder see Limburger koerier, 27th of October The Croats reply that the Flemish will have to fight themselves likewise free from the Belgian king.
Obviously ofended some Francophone journalists in the company decide to leave the clubhouse im- mediately. This is a nice example of historical parallells, comparing Yugosla- via and its peoples with Belgium as the nation of problematically co-existing Flemish and Walloons. The eternal tribunal: In a striking chap- ter in the book the authors organize a war tribunal in front of which they call every possible accused: Games that go on until today; in a recent review of the book, the Slavist Johan de Boose wrote: Three slices of Death of a Schoolboy.
The reissues and diferent presentations of the book tell a lot about the respective era: The afterword to this edition by Jacco Pekelder, published one year before the centennial year of World War I, reads as follows translation by Peeters: Kon- ing, Jejoen Bontinck is a worldfamous Belgian ex-fighter in Syria. His picture was fotoshopped next to Gavrilo Princip in Flanders most important weekly Knack exactly years after the assault of Sarajevo. The article that came with it read: It was published in diferent languages under the neutral title Gavrilo Princip.
When the American edition was published in , the clamorous front title read Terroris. After the shooting down of the civilian aircraft above the Ukrainian battlefield Twitter asked: From a completely opposite point of view, the Serbian tabloid Vesti 27th of February compared the Ukrainian op- position leader Vitali Klicko with Princip: Sarajevo - Kiev Has the new world war started?
This quote brings the reader back to as one of the earliest comments on the official declaration of the Great War blames capitalism as well: De Volksgazet, 30th of July These kinds of quotes among others in the book clearly illustrate that cause and occasion of World War I are often not being diferentiated.
Conclusions Wat kwam er uit een schot? They gathered a rich and both in content and in type diverse collection of Princip labels. Going through the book, the reader travels from to meeting difer- ent Princips along the road.
This imagological study of Princip is illustrated by what the authors consider to be the core of their story: The poems are the summary of the reflections on Princip and the 20th century including the beginning of the 21st century.
In short, one can say every generation had and has its own Princip. This book itself adds to the long list of Princip interpretations. By the concept of it, and by the invention of the term Principalia the authors were proof themselves of the never-ending, eternally reinvented story of an angry young man who changed the course of history and the world as it was known.
Dagblad der Werklieden-Partij, De Volksgazet. Stolpersteine in Berlin: Mak, Geert. In Europa. Reizen door de twintigste eeuw. De eeuw van mijn vader. Het kafana-tribunaal.
Wat kwam er uit een schot? Vrij- dag. Posledice jednog pucnja. Pekelder, Jacco. Koning, Hans.
Het fatale schot of hoe Gavrilo Prin- cip de Eerste Wereldoorlog ontketende. Zutphen, pp. Wagenaar, Wim A. Een mooie zondag. De moord in Sarajevo Drukkerij Gerritsen.
Death of a schoolboy. New York. De dood van Gavrilo Princip. Het fatale schot of hoe Gavrilo Princip de Eerste Wereldoorlog ontketende. Rehr, Henrik.
Gavrilo Princip. De man die WO I ontketende. Graphic Universe. Internet sources: Trevelyan wrote in the New York Times 25th of April how disastrous the situation in both countries was: But the material needs of Serbia are at this moment the greatest of all.
In theory, if one would wish to analyze the phenomenon in its totality, one would have to perform an interdisciplinary research that would span in all above-mentioned domains. That task may yet be endeavored, but at the mo- ment it largely surpasses the frame of this research. Here we shall try to take an opposite approach, one more suited to the size of the task at hand.
By analyzing one particular medium, we shall try to trace the main frame of the nationalistic narrative, by following a hypothesis that we are always observ- ing one singular phenomenon the same nationalistic narrative , embodied in many diferent media. Therefore, our main hypothesis is that by analyzing its presence in one media, in this case a war poster, we can from there ex- trapolate the structure of the notion in question.
If we are looking for the nationalistic narrative, war poster seems like an excellent media to be analyzed. The first reason is the expected simplicity of the message and of the language used; the message on the war poster must be direct, clear, visually impressive and easily understandable to all — espe- cially if we are considering the WWI poster given the percentage of illiterate people in Europe at the time of the war and the fact that the large percentage of the target audience would not be able to read.
The second is the visual na- ture of the media — the posters are images, and like such, are more universal than works of cinema or literature that are constricted by a certain language. The visual language is universal and easily accessible. The third reason, fol- lowing the second, is the possibility of a comparative analysis of several dif- ferent nationalistic narratives in war posters. By comparing the examples coming from diferent countries, we can see that while they all aim to use or to build their own nationalistic narratives, they do all use the imaginary coming from the same source - eagle, for example, in most cases stands for a symbol of the state U.
Visual nature of the medium makes the comparison of the posters made in diferent countries easier. Therefore, the nationalistic narrative is more easily recognizable and the visual formation of the idea of the nation is more easily detectable and analyzed. Our starting point is the notion that the nation is a cultural construct, well-rooted historically and contextually in the post 18th century Europe a development of the concept presented by Herder.
Anthony D. Smith ana- lyzes the notion as such: While divers and inherently complex, the concept is also essentially syncretic and oriented toward a singular goal that is, of course, never to be attained: It requires the construc- tion of an ideal-type, based on both the visions of the nationalists and the processes that converge to form the type of human association we call the nation, processes like myth-making, memory selection territorialization, cultural unification, and the like.
Smith The power of the word and verbal art had been rediscovered by the new European nations in the 19th century when the national groups recognized literature as one of the best forms of expressing collective creativity.
Makolkin et al. Nations, too, combine elements of faith and ethnic communities to produce a new synthesis, which draws much of its strength and inspiration, as well as many of its forms, from older religious beliefs, moral sentiments, and sacred rites.
Not only are modern national public celebration, monuments, and dis- plays, though created for relatively new purposes, often modeled on earlier traditions and older religious motifs, rituals, and ceremonies. The nation itself, as we shall see, is invested with sacred qualities that it draws from older beliefs, sentiments, and ideals about the nature of community, ter- ritory, history, and destiny.
The result is a national community of faith and belonging, a sacred communion, every bit as potent and demanding as that sought by the ancient Jewish prophets and psalmists. Which is the principal reason why nationalism stands so close to organized religion: National heroes subvert the systems of social hierarchy, uniting peasants and aristocrats into one Whole-Nation.
Throughout history, national feel- ings have proven to be among the most deep-seated sentiments Many scholars liken nationalism to religion, seeing some common features be- tween the expression of faith and the collective ethos of the group. Ma- kolkin et al. Following this logic, we arrive at the first great distinction used in war post- ers: Us and Them, the state sacred5 and the enemy barbaric. In an almost singularly unified fashion, all of the warring countries use the figure of a woman as an allegorical anthropomorphization of the idea of nation.
The reason to do so is not only to convey the idea of the nation-mother a strong social cohesive in its own, suggesting that we, members of the said nation, are all brothers of the same mother , but also to point towards the roots of this praxis — the woman, as the one who is patriarchal society is tasked with raising the children, is therefore the one who transmits all of the national values further on.
Mothers raise their children and teach them values; those values, in the paradigm of the nationalism, are those of loyalty to the fam- ily and to the state which is also a family of the sorts, on a higher level and scale.
This is clearly visible in many posters where women are represented with children: Therefore, the nation is given as a woman — highly idealized features, strong, often warrior like drawing the inspiration from the well-known Greek goddess Athens, an allegorical anthropomorphization of the Greek po- lis-state, Athens , as we see her in Remember Scarborough!
Civilization calls every man, woman and child! On the other hand, the Enemy of the state, in this case the entire opposing nation, is its exact opposite in every aspect. It is a masculine brute, a sub-human on the threshold of being a complete beast, destructive, aggressive and blood thirsty, an incarnation of the threat to civilization.
In most cases, he is given as a brutal attacker on the desperate female the endangered nation in question. A perfect example is this ideo- logical poster, Bolschewismus bringt Krieg, Arbeitslosigkeit und Hungersnot9 Bolsevism brings war, destruction and hunger.
This feature serves several diferent purposes — main one is exculpating soldiers for killing the enemies, by presenting them with the idea that they are sub-human, bestial and that as such they do not partake in the domain of the human values and morals. Such construction of the nationalistic narrative insists strongly upon this basic dichotomy: Therefore, the formula announces itself clearly — we, represented by a woman — in this particular context, com- ing from the Europe that culturally stems both from the Bible and the heri- tage of the classical antiquity, is therefore a fusion of the figure of the Virgin Mary on one side biblical and the mixture of the Greek goddess Athena and the Roman goddess Roma antique , are the civilization; they, represented by a beastly barbarian, are outside of civilization and cannot must not be treated in a civilized manner.
It is easy to see what is to become of the rules and laws of war within this narrative — it goes without saying that the conflict between two civilized persons cannot be the same as that between a man and a beast. To illustrate the point, Anthony D. Smith takes an example from the classical history: One efect of the great Persian invasion was to transform a latent Hel- lenic ethnocentrism into an overt politico-cultural movement.
The enemy serves, perhaps even more strongly than the actual positive im- age that of a motherly woman representing the nation as a unifying agent, a force of social cohesion. This trait of nationalistic narrative is very clearly detectable in war posters — an enemy is not to be trusted as he is essentially diferent and strange; friendship, integration, peace nor truce are not possible; only complete obliteration is an option.
Nationalistic narrative, as it is well shown in war posters with due respect to the circumstance of war , does not deal with the future where the diplomatic relations or the cohabitation with the enemy are to be expected; again, it is the narrative that can only deal in the complete destruction of the enemy.
Our nation depends on the existence and of the desired non-existence of the enemy at the same time. Any group instinctively longs for recognition of its uniqueness, despite the fact that the reality of being and human history repeatedly put this notion to a test.
If she is motherly, she cannot be Athens a virgin, therefore not a mother, warrior goddess, clearly of solar origin and nature ; if she is protector, she cannot be Virgin Mary initially also a virgin but a symbol of a virtuous mother — clearly of chthonic origin and nature. Virgin Mary is not very warrior-like; Athens is not very mother-like especially as she is, in all of diferent variations of her image, always unmistakably virginal. Indeed, she is the very opposite of the mother-like, chthonian principle of fertility — being equipped with essen- tially solar symbols, such are reason, intelligence, and in a very overt man- ner, weapons of war spear, helmet, shield — also, Athens is almost always seen in uniform.
Yet, by merging these two images, we have their synthesis and their combined symbolical potential that is inherently incompatible and semiologically unstable. This, however, is not done by omission or by accident. It is in fact a very important part of the nationalistic narrative; rendering the key aspects of it unstable in such a manner, the narrative is therefore rendered more vital and open to interpretations while retaining its simplicity and directness.
It is this very trait that ensures the vitality and the renewal of the narrative in question. It is, in fact, a great way of fixing certain core meanings, but by doing so making sure that they are not too rigid and openly imposed.
It is trying to avoid here described situation talking of ideology more broadly — but it is perfectly applicable to the ideology of nationalism as well as to others: Signs are ranked by a certain covert violence into rigidly hierarchical order Eagleton Internal inconsistencies are a very important part of any broader narrative that pretends to longevity — nationalistic narrative, based around the identity and the destiny of a given people, is by no means the exception; on the contrary, it deals, as we saw, in absolutes.
Rossi-Landi Although the nationalistic symbol needs to be unstable in its meanings and capable of multiple interpretations, all of those interpretations still need to be easily recognizable. Even more than that, they are made to be powerful emotional agents, linked to imagery that is at the very foundation of our culture — in other words, they need to represent archetypes.
At the same time, one symbolical image can have multiple mean- ings — it can be built out of more than one archetypes. We can easily stay with the example of Athens and Virgin Mary. By using both of these archetypical figures themselves composed out of ancient archetypical imagery and mu- tually opposed solar and chthonic principles combined, both of these goals are achieved — message is transmitted and understood on a very basic, vis- ceral level, and at the same time, the narrative is kept unstable and dynamic, therefore alive.
This brings us to an afore-mentioned statement that the nationalistic narrative — especially that of the posters, residing in the domain of the mythi- cal Athens being a very important figure in the Greek myth and Virgin Mary being the key figure in the Christian myth: It also indicates that every symbol that is inserted in such a narrative is necessarily made double.
Let us expand on this notion for a moment. Virgin Mary is a well-known character from the Christian myth, signifying mercy, virtue incarnate, the Mother-principle.
On the other hand, Athens, as already stated, signifies rea- son, intelligence, and justness. While these traits of Athens might be close to Virgin Mary as we can assume her to be just, and there is no evidence against her reason and intelligence , she also stands for forgiveness and is complete- ly non-violent. Those qualities of Athens reason, lawfulness, justness are all based in violence, as we already explained, leaning on the mechanism of taboo; therefore, Athens is completely diferent from Virgin Mary.
If we are to speak of the manner for one of them to be just, and the other, those would be two very diferent forms of justice. Still, these two very diferent figures are brought together into a sin- gle meta-figure, that of the mother nationalistic state.
That figure is essen- tially syncretic — made of two opposing meanings and principles Athens, a clearly solar one, and a Virgin Mary, a clearly chthonian one and made so that it would overcome the diference between these two figures and create a singular composite meta figure that is, on a symbolical plane, perfectly functional.
It is here that we need to make a clear distinction between two diferent modes of composite symbol making in the frame of the nationalistic mythical narrative — one is already described syncretic, the other one eclectic. By doing so, the nationalistic narrative can stay actual with the passage of time, and can adapt to changes. Also, the isomorphic nature of the narrative assures that the development in question follows the lines of the ideological values that are always at the core of every nationalistic narrative.
Still, the narrative must stay in the contact with the archetypical. It may develop and does , it may go through diferent stages and mutations, but in order to stay efective and properly perceived, it needs to rely on the arche- typical imagery, as well as it needs to rely on the notion of the sacred in itself contained in archetypical imagery.
In this manner, symbolism is again, we shall add — necessarily made double By composing these symbols, of Virgin Mary and of Athens, we have a national state that is at the same time to be protected as feminine being of the chthonian realm, motherly, which in the patriarchal-militaristic cultural context of early 20th century Europe, meant being in need of protection but able to protect us by being fierce and just.
War as such is made legitimate Athens, being the goddess of laws of justness — violence is made acceptable, when turned against the enemies of the nation state. Presence of the traits of Virgin Mary also connects this notion with that of forgiveness — going to war and killing other humans is made legitimate and that is guaranteed by the presence of Virgin Mary, that is, again, the virtue incarnate. All the more important, the creation of this meta-symbol guarantees the connection between the ever changing and advancing culture and in- evitable additions to the cultural corps of a nation state and the roots out of which that very culture stemmed.
Built into the very structure of the ideology of national- ism is the very same principle of syncretism — it is and was in the given chronological context a very young ideology, but it clams ancientness and antiquity. In order to do so, the ideology in question, carried by these post- ers, needs to connect itself to the already existing symbols that indeed can strictly chronologically speaking lay claim to ancientness and long dura- tion.
It is therefore that we have a Virgin Mary and Athens, both of them ancient symbols and figures16, as a part of the newly made, yet at the same time ancient, figure of the nation state. It is our hope that some light has been shed on this interesting phe- nomenon. Eagleton, Terry, Ideology Verso, London, Petrovic, Boris, Apokalipsa u nacistickom i sovjetskom plakatu, http: These posters are rather holy than sacred, but they pretend to be, as war is organized violence: Fis- cher-Lichte Nasuprot tome, ima dosta kritika i novinskih teksto- va.
Ilustrovana Politika. Performance and the Creative Transformation of Conflict ed.
New Village Press. Tridesetih godina Umro je , u dobi od 67 godina. Praznina je kvalitetno popunjena tek sredinom ih godina, kad je dr sc. Tek je Devet godina poslije je i umro, a rukopis je ostao u nekom dijelu arhive netom ustrojene Radiotelevizije Zagreb. Ovako su neusporedivo toplije, upravo u skladu s prirodom medija o kojem je pisao. Ugovor je potpisan 5. Radio se smjestio na Gornji grad, najstariji je i najpoznatiji dio Zagreba, bogate povijesti i arhitekture.
Nastala je prava pobuna. Ugovorom propisani kriteriji bili su za- dovoljeni i dozvola je postala pravno valjana.
Ugovor s vojskom iz Navodno je namjeravao studirati filozofiju, ali se obitelj usprotivila. Obitelj opet nije bila zadovolj- na. Ovdje treba ukratko podsjetiti na radijsku sliku tog vremena. List je u svibnju U studenom Stern je smijenjen krajem I ovdje se gubi trag dr.
Zna se tek da je tamo Neka ovaj rad bude poticaj za traganje. Despot, Miroslava. Pogovor u: Gross, Mirjana. Suvremena historiografija, Novi liber, Zagreb.
Radio-medij Stern, Ivo. Ivo Goldstein i Aleksander Laslo.. Beograd i Radio d. Izod Fabe Kadriranje je gotovo uvek iz perspektive Agija. Naravno, roditelji su prikazani jednodimenzionalno i transparentno bez potrebe za kompleksnom analizom ili evaluacijom moti- vacije.
Boje su tople i dominantne, pa su identifikacija i empatija kompletne. Filmu koji je u koliziji sa savremenim kulturnim imperativom — odrasti odmah i po svaku cenu.
U Zemlji U Jugu Felleman Belton, John. FDU Fabe, Marilyn. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California Felleman, Susan. Art in the Cinematic Imagination. University Texas Press Grainge, Paul. Memory and Popular Film. Manchester University Press Hayward, Susan. Cinema Studies The Key Concepts. Routledge Izod, John. Myth, Mind and the Screen. Cambridge University Press Lev, Peter.
Filozofski fa- kultet Paglia, Camille. Sex and Violence or Nature and Art. Penguin Books Rosenbau, Johnatan. Movies as Politcs. Institut za film, Beograd Welch, David. Propaganda and the German Cinema — Ta- uris Yeoman, Ann, Ludnica je nacionalna alegorija, svesna i jasna, otvorena, subjektivna i koherentna. Looking at the Fama Collection1 , as well as their methodology of preserving collective memory of the ex-Yugoslav wars, could be helpful in considering broader and more general question of digi- tal archives, their development and advantages, as well as possible problems and constrains.
This archive, by recording and mediating embedded memo- ries and testimonies of first-hand witnesses, could help us understand more about the causes and consequences of Yugoslav wars.
The Siege of Sarajevo Fama edukacijski paket: Screen Rant. Donald Sutherland cast as President Snow". Fernandez in Borys Kit The Daily Beast. Daily Mail. Publishers Weekly. Why Gary Ross got the coveted job, and who suggested Megan Fox for the lead role". The Wrap. Is Jennifer Lawrence the Katniss of your dreams? Suzanne Collins talks Jennifer Lawrence as Katniss".
A Brand-New Superstar". Digital Spy. New York. The Wall Street Journal. The Daily Princetonian. New York Post.
Doctor Who returns to the big screen". Rotten Tomatoes. Catching Fire': Lionsgate In 'Shock ' ". Hollywood Reporter. Catching Fire". Catching Fire begins filming in Georgia". NewNowNext Awards. The Full Lift". Nominee Categories: The Huffington Post. Pridobljeno dne 5.
Here's who you voted for PopWatch EW. The complete list of winners and nominees". LA Times. The complete nominations list". The Hugo Awards. Skrita kategorija: Strani s podvojenimi argumenti v klicih predlog. Imenski prostori Stran Pogovor. Pogled Preberi Uredi Uredi kodo Zgodovina. V drugih projektih Wikimedijina zbirka. Besedilo se sme prosto uporabljati v skladu z dovoljenjem Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva-Deljenje pod enakimi pogoji 3.
Popis Svih Knjiga u Grupi (3.2.2014) (2)
Za podrobnosti glej Pogoje uporabe. Gary Ross. Nina Jacobson Jon Kilik. Arcade Fire. Neko Case. Taylor Swift s The Civil Wars. The Civil Wars. Maroon 5 z Rozzi Crane. Josh Hutcherson. NewNowNext Awards . Golden Trailer Awards . MTV Movie Awards . Alexander Ludwig. Elizabeth Banks. CMT Music Awards . Amandla Stenberg. Willow Shields. Teen Choice Awards . Do Something Awards . Artios Awards . Teen Icon Awards .
Country Music Association Awards . EW Entertainers of the Year . Capricho Awards . Village Voice Film Polls . EDA Awards .The Siege of Sarajevo. Valentine - Rock the Beat Black Falcon, 3. FDU, Diskurs, pp. Literature quotes. Het kafana-tribunaal. Stoker - Drakula, nemrtvi. The authors try to establish bridges between their cultures of origin.
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