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INSTRUMENTATION NOTES PDF

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4 in Lecture notes). TMR7 Experimental methods in Marine Hydrodynamics – week Instrumentation, data acquisition, signal processing. Type T: Cu, Cu-Ni. – Ag-Fe: high thermal power, but power decreases with time if stored at room temperature. • Important notes regarding use of thermocouples. Any instrumentation system must include an input transducer (sensor), such as a strain gauge, whose .. Illustration (see also P2 notes). In the analysis of the.


Instrumentation Notes Pdf

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PDF | lecture notes on instrumentation | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. Instrumentation Course - Lecture notes Prof. G. Hall. The lectures are also organised by topic here. Lecture 1 · Lecture 2 · Lecture 3 · Lecture 4 · Lecture 5. CLASS NOTES ON ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION 2. DISCLAIMER. This document does not claim any originality and cannot .

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For actuators, special discussions on for their selection and an application note are found for both diaphragm and piston actuators. Also conventional and intelligent electrical actuators are discussed. Download PDFs. Export citations. Define Phantom loading. Power loss is minimized. Name the methods used for power measurement in three phase circuits.

Aluminum is a nonmagnetic metal. Why Al disc is used in induction type energy meter. What is the purpose of registering mechanism. Name the constructional parts of induction type energy meter.

It gives a valuable number proportional to the rotations. Clock meters How voltage coil is connected in induction type energy meter. What is the purpose of braking mechanism. Current coil with series magnet Voltage coil with shunt magnet Al disc Braking magnet Registering mechanism.

How current coil is connected in induction type energy meter.

It is connected in series to the load. What are the types of energy meters? Electrolytic meters Motor meters.

It provides necessary braking torque. Define creeping. Slow but continuous rotation of disc when pc is energized and cc is not energized.

State the reason why holes are provided in Al disc. It is connected in parallel to supply and load. To avoid creeping holes are provided on both sides of Al disc.

Potentiometers A Potentiometer is an instrument designed to measure an unknown voltage by comparing it with a known voltage 2. C bridges 1. This is true with AC as well.

To review. Any one of the four resistors in the above bridge can be the resistor of unknown value. A greater supply voltage leads to the possibility of increased measurement precision.

Practically speaking. Impedance bridges work the same. One of the advantages of using a bridge circuit to measure resistance is that the voltage of the power source is irrelevant.

When the bridge is in a balanced condition zero voltage as indicated by the null detector. I've been able to detect currents of less than 0.

With the pushbutton switch in place to interrupt current. One way to maximize the effectiveness of audio headphones as a null detector is to connect them to the signal source through an impedance-matching transformer. Connected to a resistive bridge.

An audio output transformer works well for this purpose: An oscilloscope is often used for this. Roughly equal performance was obtained using two different step-down transformers: Figure below Generalized AC impedance bridge: When describing general AC bridges.

Bridge circuits can be constructed to measure just about any device value desired.

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A couple of simple bridge circuits are shown below. Depending on how the bridge is set up. It is insufficient that the impedance magnitudes alone be balanced. Figure below Symmetrical bridge measures unknown inductor by comparison to a standard inductor. The two bridge circuits shown above are balanced by adjusting the calibrated reactive component Ls or Cs. Figure below All capacitors have some amount of internal resistance. An example of a little extra complexity added to compensate for real-world effects can be found in the so-called Wien bridge.

They are a bit simplified from their real-life counterparts. This internal resistance may be of interest to measure. It is assumed in the operation of the Wien bridge that the standard capacitor has negligible internal resistance.

When used in this fashion. Once that balance is achieved. The combined effect of R s and Cs is to alter the magnitude and phase angle until the bridge achieves a condition of balance. Being that there are two standard components to be adjusted a resistor and a capacitor this bridge will take a little more time to balance than the others we've seen so far.

They are also used as frequency meters. Figure above Calibration-grade inductors are more difficult to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the Maxwell-Wien bridge sometimes known plainly as the Maxwell bridge. Because the phase shifts of inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other.

Maxwell-Wein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard.

EE (EMI) Electrical measurements & Instrumentation lecture notes, pdf ebook

Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual inductance between two inductors. Magnetic fields can be difficult to shield. With no second inductor to react with in the Maxwell bridge. General-purpose impedance bridge circuits are manufactured which can be switched into more than one configuration for maximum flexibility of use. A potential problem in sensitive AC bridge circuits is that of stray capacitance between either end of the null detector unit and ground earth potential.

There are more variations beyond these designs. Unlike the plain Wien bridge. The problem is worsened if the AC voltage source is firmly grounded at one end. One way of greatly reducing this effect is to keep the null detector at ground potential.

Figure below so that one end of the null detector may be connected to either the bridge or the Wagner earth. Because the midpoint of the Wagner divider is directly grounded. There is often a provision made in the null detector connection to confirm proper setting of the Wagner earth divider circuit: When the null detector registers zero signal in both switch positions.

The Wagner earth circuit is nothing more than a voltage divider.

Like DC null detectors. In potentiometer the unknown emf is measured by comparing it with a std known emf. What are the practical difficulties in ac potentiometers. German silver Manganin wire 3. What is the basic principle used in potentiometer. Classify ac potentiometers. Define standardization.

Polar potentiometer www. It is the process by which adjusting the current flows through the potentiometer coil to make the voltage across the std cell is equal. More accurate Easy to adjust 6.

Name the potentiometer material used. State the advantages of crompton potentiometer. More complicated Accuracy is seriously affected Difficulty is experienced in standardization.

State the applications of potentiometer. The frequency-sensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known. Name the errors caused in current transformer.

State the advantages of ac potentiometers. Ammeter calibration Voltmeter calibration Wattmeter calibration. It is measured from the position of phase shifter. State the advantages of instrument transformers.

State the disadvantage of instrument transformers. Drysdale Tinsley potentiometer Gall Tinsley potentiometer Used for extension of range Power loss is minimum High voltage and currents can be measured. How the phase angle is measured in polar type potentiometers. Ratio error Phase angle error What are the constructional parts of current transformer?

Primary winding Secondary winding Magnetic core. Name some ac potentiometers.

State the applications of ac potentiometers. Cannot be used for dc measurements. The ratio of energy component current and secondary current is known as the ratio error.

Define ratio error. State the use of potential transformer. Name the methods used for low resistance measurement. Name the methods used for medium resistance measurement Ammeter — voltmeter method Substitution method Wheatstone bridge method Carey foster bridge method. CT is connected in series and PT is connected in parallel. How the CT and PT are connected in the circuits. Insulation resistance of cables High resistance circuit elements Volume resistivity of a material www.

How the phase angle error is created. It is mainly due to magnetizing component of excitation current.

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What is the range of medium resistance? Resistance of about 1 ohm to kilo ohms are called medium resistance. Classify resistance. Low resistance Medium resistance High resistance Ammeter — voltmeter method Potentiometer method Kelvin double bridge method Ohm meter method. Ratio error Phase angle error. Name the errors caused in potential transformer.

The megger is an instrument used for the measurement of high resistance and insulation resistance. How resistance is measured in direct deflection method. What is the range of low resistance?

Resistance of about 1 ohm and under are included in this class. What ranges of resistance can be measured by using doctor ohmmeter. Define megger. Free from errors The balance is quit independent of source emf State the advantages of Wheatstone bridge method. Name the parts of megger. State the advantages of Kelvin double bridge method. What are the constructional features of doctor ohmmeter?

Permanent magnet Current coil Pressure coil Battery Pointer with graduated scale. Resistance of kilo ohms and above are usually termed as high resistance. Errors owing to contact resistance. It consists of a hand driven dc generator and a direct reading true ohm meter. State the balance equation used in bridge methods.

How the earth resistance is measured.

EE2201 Measurement and Instrumentation Lecture Notes

In this method leakage current does not flows through the meter and therefore it gives accurate reading. Armoured cables Unarmoured cables. How resistance is measured by using ohm meter method. Name the leads present in megger. The product of opposite branch resistances are equal. The product of opposite branch impedances are equal. Classify the cables according to their sheathing.

In this method a capacitor is charged and discharged for a specific time period and from this resistance is measured.With harmonics becoming an ever-present phenomenon in large AC power systems.

How the range of instrument can be extended in PMMC instruments. Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Pavan Kumar.

April 7. State the applications of potentiometer. Humidity measuring devices Current coil with series magnet Voltage coil with shunt magnet Al disc Braking magnet Registering mechanism. A sucrose density gradient is created by gently overlaying lower concentrations of sucrose on higher concentrations in centrifuge tubes The particles of interest are placed on top of the gradient and centrifuge in ultra centrifuges.

State the disadvantage of instrument transformers.