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John Brown Boxing Manual Pdf

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Each fighter was given a ten-second count if he was knocked down, and wrestling was banned. The introduction of gloves of "fair-size" also changed the nature of the bouts. An average pair of boxing gloves resembles a bloated pair of mittens and are laced up around the wrists. As a result of their introduction, bouts became longer and more strategic with greater importance attached to defensive maneuvers such as slipping, bobbing, countering and angling.

Because less defensive emphasis was placed on the use of the forearms and more on the gloves, the classical forearms outwards, torso leaning back stance of the bare knuckle boxer was modified to a more modern stance in which the torso is tilted forward and the hands are held closer to the face.

Late 19th and early 20th centuries[ edit ] Through the late nineteenth century, the martial art of boxing or prizefighting was primarily a sport of dubious legitimacy. Outlawed in England and much of the United States, prizefights were often held at gambling venues and broken up by police.

Still, throughout this period, there arose some notable bare knuckle champions who developed fairly sophisticated fighting tactics. Coney in found that a bare-knuckle fight was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm , despite the consent of the participants. This marked the end of widespread public bare-knuckle contests in England. Throughout the early twentieth century, boxers struggled to achieve legitimacy. Modern boxing[ edit ] The sport rising from illegal venues and outlawed prize fighting has become one of the largest multibillion-dollar sports today.

A majority of young talent still comes from poverty-stricken areas around the world. Places like Mexico, Africa, South America, and Eastern Europe prove to be filled with young aspiring athletes who wish to become the future of boxing. Even in the U. According to Rubin, "boxing lost its appeal with the American middle class, and most of who boxes in modern America come from the streets and are street fighters".

A minute is typically spent between each round with the fighters in their assigned corners receiving advice and attention from their coach and staff. The fight is controlled by a referee who works within the ring to judge and control the conduct of the fighters, rule on their ability to fight safely, count knocked-down fighters, and rule on fouls. Up to three judges are typically present at ringside to score the bout and assign points to the boxers, based on punches and elbows that connect, defense, knockdowns, hugging and other, more subjective, measures.

Because of the open-ended style of boxing judging, many fights have controversial results, in which one or both fighters believe they have been "robbed" or unfairly denied a victory. Each fighter has an assigned corner of the ring, where his or her coach, as well as one or more "seconds" may administer to the fighter at the beginning of the fight and between rounds. Each boxer enters into the ring from their assigned corners at the beginning of each round and must cease fighting and return to their corner at the signalled end of each round.

A bout in which the predetermined number of rounds passes is decided by the judges, and is said to "go the distance". The fighter with the higher score at the end of the fight is ruled the winner. With three judges, unanimous and split decisions are possible, as are draws. A boxer may win the bout before a decision is reached through a knock-out; such bouts are said to have ended "inside the distance".

If a fighter is knocked down during the fight, determined by whether the boxer touches the canvas floor of the ring with any part of their body other than the feet as a result of the opponent's punch and not a slip, as determined by the referee, the referee begins counting until the fighter returns to his or her feet and can continue. Some jurisdictions require the referee to count to eight regardless of if the fighter gets up before. Should the referee count to ten, then the knocked-down boxer is ruled "knocked out" whether unconscious or not and the other boxer is ruled the winner by knockout KO.

A "technical knock-out" TKO is possible as well, and is ruled by the referee, fight doctor, or a fighter's corner if a fighter is unable to safely continue to fight, based upon injuries or being judged unable to effectively defend themselves. Many jurisdictions and sanctioning agencies also have a "three-knockdown rule", in which three knockdowns in a given round result in a TKO.

A TKO is considered a knockout in a fighter's record. A "standing eight" count rule may also be in effect. This gives the referee the right to step in and administer a count of eight to a fighter that he or she feels may be in danger, even if no knockdown has taken place. After counting the referee will observe the fighter, and decide if he or she is fit to continue.

For scoring purposes, a standing eight count is treated as a knockdown. In general, boxers are prohibited from hitting below the belt, holding, tripping, pushing, biting, or spitting.

The boxer's shorts are raised so the opponent is not allowed to hit to the groin area with intent to cause pain or injury. Failure to abide by the former may result in a foul. They also are prohibited from kicking, head-butting, or hitting with any part of the arm other than the knuckles of a closed fist including hitting with the elbow, shoulder or forearm, as well as with open gloves, the wrist, the inside, back or side of the hand.

They are prohibited as well from hitting the back, back of the head or neck called a "rabbit-punch" or the kidneys. They are prohibited from holding the ropes for support when punching, holding an opponent while punching, or ducking below the belt of their opponent dropping below the waist of your opponent, no matter the distance between.

If a "clinch" — a defensive move in which a boxer wraps his or her opponents arms and holds on to create a pause — is broken by the referee, each fighter must take a full step back before punching again alternatively, the referee may direct the fighters to "punch out" of the clinch.

When a boxer is knocked down, the other boxer must immediately cease fighting and move to the furthest neutral corner of the ring until the referee has either ruled a knockout or called for the fight to continue. Violations of these rules may be ruled "fouls" by the referee, who may issue warnings, deduct points, or disqualify an offending boxer, causing an automatic loss, depending on the seriousness and intentionality of the foul.

An intentional foul that causes injury that prevents a fight from continuing usually causes the boxer who committed it to be disqualified. A fighter who suffers an accidental low-blow may be given up to five minutes to recover, after which they may be ruled knocked out if they are unable to continue. Accidental fouls that cause injury ending a bout may lead to a "no contest" result, or else cause the fight to go to a decision if enough rounds typically four or more, or at least three in a four-round fight have passed.

Unheard of in the modern era, but common during the early 20th Century in North America, a "newspaper decision NWS " might be made after a no decision bout had ended. A "no decision" bout occurred when, by law or by pre-arrangement of the fighters, if both boxers were still standing at the fight's conclusion and there was no knockout, no official decision was rendered and neither boxer was declared the winner.

But this did not prevent the pool of ringside newspaper reporters from declaring a consensus result among themselves and printing a newspaper decision in their publications.

Officially, however, a "no decision" bout resulted in neither boxer winning or losing. Boxing historians sometimes use these unofficial newspaper decisions in compiling fight records for illustrative purposes only. Often, media outlets covering a match will personally score the match, and post their scores as an independent sentence in their report. Professional vs. The modern Olympic movement revived interest in amateur sports, and amateur boxing became an Olympic sport in In their current form, Olympic and other amateur bouts are typically limited to three or four rounds, scoring is computed by points based on the number of clean blows landed, regardless of impact, and fighters wear protective headgear, reducing the number of injuries, knockdowns, and knockouts.

Professional boxing remains by far the most popular form of the sport globally, though amateur boxing is dominant in Cuba and some former Soviet republics. For most fighters, an amateur career, especially at the Olympics, serves to develop skills and gain experience in preparation for a professional career. Western boxers typically participate in one Olympics and then turn pro, Cubans and other socialist countries have an opportunity to collect multiple medals.

Slowly return your head to its starting position. Next, roll over to your side and lift your head to touch your ear. Do this on both sides and then lay face down. Lift your head until it is vertical to the floor, then return it to a horizontal position. Each exercise should be performed in a controlled, deliberate fashion with repetitions per side.

The Ringside Neck Strengthener incorporates cables to utilize resistance training which has proven to be extremely effective. This unique cable-system can be attached to a door knob, a ring post or any hook. The exercises it employs are the same as the Wrap Around Neck Strengthener only theyre done from a standing position.

An instruction guide is included with each of these neck-strengthening devices when ordered from Ringside. Running is an excellent means of conditioning for boxing, if done properly. Keep in mind that you are training for amateur boxing, not crosscountry running or marathon racing. Roadwork should be done as follows: 1.

Warm-up by stretching out. Jog a mile or so to warm-up. Now comes the workoutSprint for the same amount of time you will be boxing. When you start to get in shape, you should be covering more ground during your sprint. Bring a stopwatch or watch with a second hand to time yourself. After you have completed your intense sprint program, it is a good idea to finish up with a jog of any length you desire, but remember that your real amateur boxing workout is the sprint routine.

Again, the key is training your body for quick, explosive, intensive action. This details, among other aspects of training, an intense interval running program. Coaching Olympic-Style Boxing is available from Ringside and should be a part of every coach and boxers library.

Every advanced move or technique is based on having solid fundamentals. Take your time and learn them well. This is the most important step in amateur boxing. Your feet should be the length of a normal step apart. Your left knee should be bent for balance, and your feet should be pointing toward your opponent.

Your feet must also remain apart for purpose of balance. If you move forward, move the left leg first and pick up the distance with the right foot. If you move backward, move the right foot back and then move the left foot after. Moving left or right is accomplished by stepping sideways with the foot of the direction you wish to move.

For instance, if you want to move left, move the left foot to the left and then bring over the right foot. Do the opposite to move right. Do not get into the bad habit of bringing your feet together after you throw punches. It is a waste of energy.

Plus, whenever your feet are together, youre susceptible to being either hit or pushed off balance. Also, when you move forward, dont drag your right foot. Use it.

Make it work so that your weight is evenly distributed. It is extremely important that your left shoulder is out front or pointing towards your opponent. This will allow for full rotation of the shoulders and hips when throwing the right hand. It also puts you in the proper defensive position to guard against the right hand.

Make sure the left shoulder is always higher than the right. If not, you will be susceptible to right hands. A good technique for raising the left shoulder is to bend the right knee. This actually lowers the right shoulder, which should then make the left higher. This is the ideal defensive position.

Also having the elbows in front of the body is the proper position from which to throw punches and also to block uppercuts. The arms from the elbow to the fist must be in a vertical straight up and down position at all times.

The purpose of the left jab is to keep your opponent on the defense and to accumulate points. If you are keeping a jab in your opponents face, he will have to concern himself with defense which will afford him less time to work on his offense hitting you in the nose.

You can use the jab to disrupt your opponents rhythm and timing, in addition to using it to control the bout. The left jab is thrown by extending the left hand and arm fully, keeping to left elbow down and turning the forearm so that the knuckles land in a horizontal position. Speed is derived by keeping the elbow down and snapping the arm forward at the elbow joint.

Boxing Manual - John Brown 2003 (1988)

Power is possible by slightly pushing the body, particularly your left shoulder, forward with your right foot and leg when the jab is thrown. Keep your elbow down.

Snap the arm forward at the elbow joint. Push the left shoulder forward by pushing from the floor with the right foot. Return the jab back to the head as quickly as you throw it out. Dot not move your right elbow when throwing the left.

How to jab is as important as knowing when to jab. Unless you are using the jab for probing purposes, it should not be used unless your opponent is within punching range. Dont throw it just to be doing something.

Doing so will afford your opponent the opportunity to gauge your speed and time your punches. Work on the jab until your left arm almost falls off. Take a whole week in the gym and throw only this punch. If you can develop a solid left jab, you will be a good boxer.

The right is normally thrown after the left jab. Throw the right from the face and bring the right elbow up to about shoulder level. The left knee should be bent for balance. Your power will be derived by pushing and pivoting the right foot, whipping your right shoulder forward and pivoting the hips. Return the right immediately to the head.

Have your partner throw punches in slow motion while you block them. After the technique is mastered, have him pick up the pace to simulate the real thing.

Do not reach out for the jab. Let it come to you. Be sure to keep up resistance in your right hand so you dont hit yourself. The purpose of slipping is to avoid the blow and maintain the position to counter. It calls for exact timing and judgment. To be effective, it must be executed so that the blow is escaped by only the smallest margin. The two basic slips are outside and inside. The outside slip is relatively safe because you are slipping away from the right hand.

Always take your catchers mitt with you when you slip as a backup system INSIDE SLIP: This involves bending at the knees and dropping the upper body forward to the left, inside of the opponents left jab. Your head should end up directly over your left knee.

This is a somewhat dangerous move because you are moving into your opponents right hand. Keeping the left hand in proper position in front of the head should block most rights. Be sure to keep your hands in front of your head as a backup system and also that you will not be cautioned for head-butting.

It should never be used as a lead punch, only when actual openings are present. This is usually thrown from a close position after a left jab or a right hand. Use the left foot and hip to pivot or turn your body while bringing up the elbow to a horizontal position.

The forearm should be parallel to the ground when the hook lands. The hook is most often thrown with: Palm In: With this hook, the palm of the hand faces your body. This is somewhat difficult to master, but when thrown correctly it can be extremely effective. Keep your left knee bent for balance. Return to the on guard position.

Forearm Block: Cover the right side of your head with your right arm and touch your ear with your right glove. Ducking: Bend your upper body forward from the waist and dip both knees allowing your head to drop underneath the hook.

While ducking, be sure not to take your eyes off your opponent.

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These are usually thrown from the inside with the right after closing the distance with a left jab or hook. Your arm should be in a half-bent position and should not dip below the waistline. The most effective defense is merely stepping back out of range. Block with your hands and forearms, kept in front of your head and body.

It requires using the eyes, hands, body and legs in a single effort to deceive the opponent, to create openings.

As a combination is thrown, the punches should increase in intensity so that the later blows have more power. Double or triple left jab to the chin. Left jab to the chin followed by a left jab to the body. Left jab to the body followed by a left jab to the chin.

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Left jab to the chin, straight right to the chin the old one-two. Left jab to the chin and a straight right to the body. Left jab to the body and a straight right to the chin. In feinting, an opening is created, while in drawing, some part of the body or head is left unprotected in order to entice the opponent into throwing a specific blow, so that a counter attack can be executed.

It is especially effective when moving an opponent to work off his chest and cut off the punching room.

Your hands must be kept in front of your head or a foul for butting will be called. Left jab to the chin, straight right to the chin and a left hook to the chin. Left jab to the body and a straight right to the body. Hooking off the jableft jab to the chin and a left hook to the chin. Left jab to the chin, straight right to the body and a left hook to the chin.

Straight right to the body and a left hook to the chin. Straight right to chin and a left hook to the chin. Straight right to the chin and a left hook to the body.

To obtain the inside position, it is necessary to advance quickly, slip, weave, duck, draw, or feint. It also means having the ability to adapt ones style to that of the opponent. Fight with your head, not your hands. Outthink your opponent, and you will out-box him.

Nothing makes up for good physical conditioning. If you are tense, you expend energy. There will be many chances to use them. If you are hurt, dont show it. Use it often. To stand in one spot means you are an easy target. However, dont jump around and make unnecessary movements.

If you wait, you will be punched. Rarely do the same thing twice in succession. A tall opponent is probably accustomed to having opponents come to him. Make him come to you 2. If he wont come to you, move in fast and hit. Remain there if you are successful, otherwise move out quickly. Sidestep and stick with the left jab followed by a right when possible. If the rusher gets close, shell up and move in, giving him no punching room. Keep your right hand in proper defensive position to catch the jab.

Slip or duck the jab and move in to counter to the body or head. Continually force your opponent and try to corner him on the ropes so that close range can be attained. Keep moving. Dont let your opponent get set. Move in quickly and launch a sudden attack.

Move out quickly and dont slug. Dont lead. Make the south-paw come to you. All south-paws have very powerful straight left hands. Always circle to your left, away from the left hand. Keep your right hand catchers mitt ready to catch his big left hand if he throws it.

When the south-paw throws a jab, slip to his left and counter with a left hook. Remember the left hook is the most effective weapon against a south-paw.

Boxing: A Cultural History

A high carbohydrate diet with a fair amount of protein and low fat is a real plus. A boxer should eat balanced meals of meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruits and whole grain breads and cereals. Try to avoid eating large amounts of red meat.

Eat more fish, chicken and turkey. Avoid processed foods that are full of chemicals such as potato chips, most snacks, ice cream, etc.

Sugar is a poison to the body. Keep its use to a minimum level. Because boxing is so vigorous, it is advisable that a daily vitamin supplement be used. Drink a large amount of water to replenish lost liquids and to clean out your system. Adelle Davis, a famous nutritionist said it best, You are what you eat. No hitting below the belt or behind the head. No kidney punches. No holding. No hitting with the open glove. No hitting on the break 6.

Never talk to the referee of your opponent during the bout.

There is a limit to how far you can go, and your body will usually tell you that limit. Bringing your weight down must be done gradually, not in one week. Do not fast. Eat fruits, vegetables and low calorie meats. Protect yourself at all times. No holding and hitting. No moving in on an opponent unless your hands are in front of your head. Judges will look for certain things that can influence their vote.

The following are a few of these things. When you come into the ring, appear confident, but never cocky. Act like you know what youre doing and try to achieve eye contact with the judges. Smile and nod to them. Always exercise sportsman-like conduct even if your opponent calls your mother a name.

Your opponent wants you to display bad sportsmanship for his advantage. Never, EVER showboat, such as talking to your opponent, shuffling your feet or dropping your hands, etc.

The judges do not like it and will vote against you. Judges like and favor boxers who have a classic style of keeping their hands up and moving gracefully. If you have been assigned to the red corner, wear a predominantly red uniform. If you are boxing out of the blue corner, wear predominantly blue. This will make you and your punches easier for the judge to identify.

No intentional spitting out of your mouthpiece. An eight second rest is given when a boxer appears hurt. When an opponent is knocked down, proceed to the furthest neutral corner. Remember that points are scored on boxing ability, not on the power of the punches.

Compare products and talk to other boxers and coaches before you spend your money. An intelligent coach will always recommend Ringside.When your opponent leaves himself open, fire a quick combination and then get out of his punching range.

A boxer must have the mental discipline to take instruction that he receives and incorporate it into his boxing style. After your boxers have a working knowledge of offense and defense, have attained a desirable level of conditioning and are able to go three rounds, it is time to start sparring. After the offensive fundamentals are learned, move on to the basic defensive fundamentals. This weighted training device is used by laying flat on the floor.

Drill work is a great way to work on specific techniques in a controlled situation. Rarely do the same thing twice in succession. Amateur boxing can also provide a young person with the opportunity to satisfy the basic human need of recognition in a positive manner. The following are a few of these things.