HYBRID CAR TECHNOLOGY PDF
PDF | With the advancement in 21st Century, there has been increase in Paper will also discuss the technologies used in the making of Hybrid Cars such as. PDF | The environmental impact of automobiles is increasingly becoming one of the most important social issues of today. To meet current and. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has two types of energy storage units, electricity and The front-running motor technologies for HEV applications include PMSM .
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HYBRID VEHICLES: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND COST REDUCTION better . results are available in pdF and excel files, linked from the summary. People who bought a new car (non-hybrid) in the past year. . This paper focused on hybrid vehicle technology and its integration into. aware of the necessity to develop a new technology that would enable an Key words: Hybrid Electric Vehicle, emerging technologies, technological trajectories California Transportation Sector, (olhon.info).
Nelson, P. Santini, and J. Long-Term Reliability Assessment: Long-Term Reliability Assessment: — Pesaran, A. Market, H. Tataria, and D. Anaheim, California. Power Grids. Part 1: Technical Analysis.
Plotkin, S. Shiau, N. Energy Policy Simpson, A. Yokohama, Japan. Tikhonov, K. Woburn, Mass. The Oil Crunch.
First report, October Zhang, S. Jow, K. The armature or rotor is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet.
Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better efficiency and also saves a lot of fuel in today's fuel deficit world. A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent.
If proper research and development is done in this field, hybrid vehicle promises a practical, efficient, low pollution vehicle for the coming era. The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars.
However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and lighter, and is more efficient than the engine in a conventional vehicle, because the engine runs at a relatively constant speed, and does not need to provide direct power for acceleration, which is the biggest reason for large engines. Use advanced technologies to reduce emissions. The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do.
For example, it takes about 1, pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon 7 pounds of gasoline. The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator.
For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car.
But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids. The power split device is a clever gearbox that hooks the internal combustion engine and D. The engine starts only after the vehicle attains a certain speed. Once the engine starts it operates on a narrow speed band.
The power split device allows the engine to stay in its most efficient load and speed range most of the time. The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.
The batteries used in HEV is Ni-Cd cells since its lighter than the lead acid cells and its also mechanically strong and can stand very rough use. The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car.
Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional transmissions. The armature or rotor is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power.
Different parts used in a simple DC motor are as shown in the diagram above:. The magnetic circuit of a DC consists of the armature magnetic material core , the air-gap, field poles and yoke. The yoke of a DC machine is a annular ring to the middle of which is bolted field poles and the interlopes. The interlopes or commutation poles are narrow poles fixed to the yoke, midway between the main field poles. The use of an electric field winding, which supplies electric energy to establish a magnetic field in the magnetic circuit , result in the great diversity and a variety of performance characteristics.
All electric cars use batteries charged by an external source, leading to the problem of range which is being solved in hybrid electric vehicle.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle PDF
One way, known as a parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor.
Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels. An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. We know the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other.
How Hybrids Work
On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other and similarly, south will repel south. Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
DC series motor used in hybrid electric vehicle is a versatile and flexible machine.
It can satisfy the demands of load recurring high starting, accelerating and retarding torques. A DC machine is also easily adaptable for drives with a wide range of speed control and fast reversals. In the diagram shown below we can see two magnets in the motor: The armature or rotor is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better efficiency and also saves a lot of fuel in today's fuel deficit world.
A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent. If proper research and development is done in this field, hybrid vehicle promises a practical, efficient, low pollution vehicle for the coming era.
However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and lighter, and is more efficient than the engine in a conventional vehicle, because the engine runs at a relatively constant speed, and does not need to provide direct power for acceleration, which is the biggest reason for large engines. Use advanced technologies to reduce emissions.So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other.
To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of gasoline, a hybrid car can:. A group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the shelf components.
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Hybrid battery capacity currently ranges from 4. Kalhammer, F. Ecotality Life. For example, some of the battery-electric locomotives used for maintenance trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation.
By having four valves in the cylinder instead of two, a larger portion of the area could be used to let air in and exhaust out. August 5. In a parallel hybrid vehicle an electric motor and an internal combustion engine are coupled such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together.
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