GEORGE BRIDGMAN COMPLETE GUIDE TO DRAWING FROM LIFE PDF
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Bridgman's Complete Guide to Drawing from Life [George B. Bridgman] on that most of the negative reviews were in regards to the pdf version of the book. Documents Similar To - Bridgman's Complete Guide to Drawing From Life. Burne Hogarth - Dynamic Anatomy (Revised and Expanded).pdf. Uploaded by. - Bridgman's Complete Guide to Drawing From Life - Free ebook download as Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd For more than thirty years thousands of art students crowded into George Bridgman's classes at the Art.
July 22, History. By George Brant Bridgman. Go to the editions section to read or download ebooks. Bridgman's complete guide to drawing from life George Brant Bridgman. Bridgman's complete guide to drawing from life Close. Want to Read.
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Readers waiting for this title: History Created July 13, 3 revisions Download catalog record: Libraries near you: WorldCat Library. And the front of the figure curves in and out in much the same manner, a series of concave and convex curves, and planes. The distribution of light and shade brings out these forms.
The HUlTIan Head AT first the study of heads should be in the abstract, that is, we should forget everything that distinguishes one head from another and think of the masse'S common to all heads. Heads are about the same size. Each is architecturally conceived, constructed and balanced; each is a monumenta1 structure. By first mentally conceiving of a head as a cube, rather than as an oval or egg-shaped form, we are able to make simple, definite calculations.
The cube of the head measures about six inches wide, eight inches high and seven and a half inches from front to back. These measurements are obtained by squaring a skull on its six sides: Therefore the base of this cube is about seven and a half inches deep and six inches wide, and on this "ground plan" as on that of a square, any form may be constructed.
This cube may be tilted to any angle, also foreshortened, and it may be placed in perspective. Its bony framework is immovable, except the lower jaw, which articulates. There are twenty-two bones in the head. Eight of these bones compose the brain case and fourteen bones compose the face. The brain case is bounded in front by the frontal bone or forehead, which extends from the root of the nose to the crown of the head and laterally to the sides of the temples. The two malar bones, or cheek bones, are facial bones, each united to four other bones forming a part of the zygomatic arch which spans the space from cheek to ear.
Above, the malar or cheek bone joins the forehead at its outer angle; below, it joins the superior maxillary or upper jawbones. The two superior maxillary bones constitute the upper jaw and cylinder that hold the upper row of teeth.
They are attached above to the cheek bones and eye cavities. The nasal bones form the bridge of the nose. It is shaped like a horseshoe, its extremities ascending to fit into the temporal portion of the ear.
It is a mandible, working on the principle of a hinge moving down or up as the mouth opens or closes, but with a certain amount. The masseter muscle extends from under the span of the zygomatic arch to the lower edge and ascending angle of the lower jaw.
It is the large muscle raising the lower jaw, used in mastication. It fills out the side of the face, marking the plane which extends from the cheek bone to the angle of the jaw.
Then draw the general direction of the neck from its center, just above the Adam's apple, to the pit, at the junction of the collar bones. Now outline the neck, comparing its width and length with the head. Draw another line from the base of the ear at a right angle to the one you have just drawn.
A line drawn through these will parallel a line drawn from ear to ear, intersecting, at right angles, the line drawn through the vertical center of the face. With straight lines, draw the boundaries of the forehead, its top and sides, and the upper border of the eye sockets. Then draw a line from each cheek bone at its widest part, to the chin, on the corresponding side, at its highest and widest part.
If the head you are drawing is on a level with your eyes, the lines you have just drawn will intersect at right angles at the base of the nose and if both ears are visible and the line from the ear extended across the head, it will touch the base of both ears. Consider the head as a cube, the ears opposite each other on its sides or cheeks and the line from ear to ear as a spit or skewer running through rather than around the head.
If the head is above the eye level, or tilted backward, the base of the nose will be above this line from ear to ear. Or should the head be below the eye level or tilted forward, the base of the nose will be below the line from ear to ear. In either case, the head will be foreshortened upward or downward as the case may be and the greater the distance the head is above or below the eye level the greater the distance between the line from ear to ear and the base of the nose.
You now have the boundaries of the face and the front plane of the cube. The features may now be drawn in. There are to be considered parallel perspective, angular perspective and oblique perspective. Parallel lines which do not retreat do not appear to converge. Retreating lines, whether they are above or below the eye, take a direction toward the level of the eye and meet at a point. This point is called the center of vision, and it is also the vanishing point in parallel perspective.
In parallel perspective, all proportions, measurements and locations are made on the plane that faces you. So in drawing a square, a cube or a head, draw the nearest side first. When an object, such as a cube, is tilted or turned from the horizontal it is said to be in the oblique perspective. Take a circle for an illustration. Draw a horizontal line through its center, then a line at right angles. Where they intersect place a point of sight.
Should a head be placed directly in the center of this circle the center of the face would correspond to the root of the nose, on a line level with the lower border of the eyes. The horizontal line is called the horizon and is at eye level at the height of the eye. The features will parallel the horizontal line. The distance away is the same. Looking directly toward the corner of a head at close range, it would be necessary to change the point of sight.
The lines that were parallel with the horizon are no longer parallel, but drop or rise to meet the horizon at some point to form vanishing points. Unless a head is at eye level it must necessarily be in perspective. When a head is above the spectator, obviously he is looking up.
Not only is the head in perspective, but every feature of the face; eyes, nose, mouth, ears. Like the barnacles on the hull of a ship, the features follow the lift. In the same manner they follow the upward trend, or its reverse.
Everything to that is secondary.
Bridgman's Complete Guide to Drawing From Life: Over 1,000 Illustrations
The features must travel with the mass of the head. Perspective must have some concrete shape, form or mass as a basis. A cube or a head seen directly in front will be bordered by parallel lines; two vertical and two horizontal. These lines do not retreat, and therefore, in appearance remain parallel, As soon however, as they are placed so that they are seen from beneath, on top or from either side, they appear to converge.
This convergence causes the further side of the object to appear smaller than the nearer side. The rules are: Second-Parallel retreating lines meet at the level of the eye. The point where parallel retreating lines meet is called the vanishing point. As objects retire or recede they appear smaller. It is the first rule of perspective--on this, the science of perspective is built.
They are: The forehead, square and passing into the cranium at the top. The cheek-bone region which is flat. An erect, cylindrical form on which are placed the base of the nose and the mouth.
The triangular form of the lower jaw. In this respect a face in profile resembles architectural mouldings.
Number one line is to be drawn first, number two line next, three and four to follow numerically. Number one line is drawn down the face touching the root and base of the nose. Number two line from the base of the ear at a right angle to number one, with no relation to the face as to where this line crosses.
Number three line is drawn from the cheek bone at its greatest width to the outer border of the chin. Where two and three intersect, start the fourth line and carry it to the base of the nose. Whether the head is seen from above or below, the features will follow the number four line. Planes are the front, top and sides of the masses. It is the placing and locking of these planes or forms that gives solidity and structural symmetry to the face, and it is their relative proportion as well as the degree to which each tilts forward or backward, protrudes or recedes, that makes the more obvious differences in faces.
All heads, round or oval or square, would be without contrast in form. In drawing, one must look for or suspect that there is more than is casually seen. The difference in drawing is in what you sense, not what you see. There is other than that which lies on the surface. The ear side is another plane. Spectacles are hinged to conform to the front and sides of a face. The square or triangular forehead must have a front and two sides, making three planes. The face turns at a line from each cheek bone downward to the outer side of the chin.
There is also a triangular plane on each side of the nose; its base from tip to wings forms another triangular plane. There is also the square or rounded chin with planes running back from each side.
Border lines separate the front and sides of the forehead above, and cheek bones and chin below. Across from ear to cheek bone is a ridge separating two more planes which slope upward toward the forehead and downward to the chin. Considering the masses of the head, the thought of the masses comes first, then the planes; after that the rounded parts of the head. There are four rounded forms on the skull.
One on the forehead, two on the sides of the head, just above each ear, and one on the front of the face, extending from nose to chin. On each side, at the upper part of the forehead, are two rounded elevations termed the frontal eminences.
These eminences often merge into one and are referred to as the frontal eminence. The plane of the face, divided by the nose, is broken on each side by a line from the outer corner of the cheek bone to the center of the upper lip, making two smaller planes.
The outer of these turns to become the plane of the jaw, which also is again divided by a line marking the edge of the masseter muscle, running from the outer border of the cheek bone to the corner of the jaw, and again making two secondary planes, one toward the cheek and one toward the ear. The relations of these masses and planes is to the moulding of a head what architecture is to a house..
They vary in proportion with each individual, and must be carefully compared with a mental standard. The front border of the temple is seen to be a long curve, 'almost parallel to the curve of the cranium. The top of the cheek bone is seen to be prolonged backward toward the ear as a ridge zygoma or yoke which also marks the base of the temple.
It slopes slightly down in front.
Bridgman's Complete Guide to Drawing from Life
From cheek bone and zygoma, where they meet, a lesser ridge is seen rising between the temple and the orbit, marking the back of the orbit and the first part of the long line of the temple. Assume a profile view of a head measures eight by eight inches.
Directly in front or from the back, the relative proportions would be six by eight.
At three-quarters view it would be somewhere between the two measurements. If more of one side of the cube is seen than the other, the broader side will be less in perspective than the narrower side. The narrowest side of a cube presents the more acute angle and will have its vanishing point nearest.
When an object is above eye level. The nearer the object the nearer together are the vanishing points. When a head is to be drawn in profile it is well to first determine whether the head is above or below eye level. This can be done by holding a pencil or rule at ann's length at a right angle to the face from the base of the ear. If the base of the nose shows below the ruler, then you are looking up underneath the head; therefore the head is above eye level or tilted backward.
If the head is three-quarters view or front, the line from ear to ear will cut below the nose as in profile when seen from beneath. If the object is a head, you will see the top of the head. The higher above the head you are, the more top you see, the lower you are, the less you see.
The top is nearest the level of the eye and the lower part further away. In profile at eye level the center of an adult's head will be a little below where the hook of a pair of spectacles curl around the top of the ears. If this line were continuous, it would pass through the eye, dividing the head into two parts. The base of the ear is on a level with the base of the nose. A line passing around the head from ear to ear would parallel the spectacles. When the view is below eye level you are looking down and therefore see a portion of the top.
This means the head, top, bottom and sides are rising to the level of the eye. From the lower corners of the forehead, the cheek bones mark the beginning of a plane descending downward in a long curve to the widest part of the chin. This curve marks the corner of the two great planes of the face, front and side.
Here the spectacles turn in perspective as well as the line passing from ear to ear. Part of this formation is the parietal bone, a thick spongy shock absorber at the side of the head, at its widest and most exposed portion.
Below this, cylindrical in shape, comes the rounded portion of the face. This rounded portion corresponds to the lower portion of the face inasmuch as it has front and receding sides. The upper portion, known as the superior maxillary, is irregular in shape and descends from the base of the eye socket to the mouth. The lower portion, known as the lower or inferior maxillary, takes the same curve as the mouth and is part of the angular jaw bone.
The nose lies on the center of this cylindrical formation.
Below the nose, the lips follow the contour of this part of the rounded form, which as a covering, takes the shape of the teeth. It is in reality, plane against plane, adjusted at different angles, which forms the shape of the head. There is no exact mathematical proportion, but in perspective or from any angle, we are forced to balance truly one side with the other. A round line is the outline of a round f?
The classic beauty of all drawing is a happy combination or contrast of both these forms. A partially rounded square form or a partially square rounded form adjacent to each other do not produce power or style. The eye has a fixed point upon which to rest.
A vertical line divides the head into two parts. These are equal, opposite, and balanced. Each side is an exact duplicate of the other. A horizontal line drawn through the lower eyelids divides the head in half.
The lower portion again divided in the middle gives the base of the nose. The mouth is placed two-thirds up from the chin. Built on the form of a cube, the head has a sense of bulk and solidity that easily lends itself to foreshortening and perspective.
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A partially rounded square form or a partially square rounded form adjacent to each other do not produce power or style.
We know that in a group of Florentine artists formed a society for the study of the chemistry of colors, the mathematics of composition, etc. Across from ear to cheek bone is a ridge separating two more planes which slope upward toward the forehead and downward to the chin. This shortening and bulging of the muscles becomes an assemblage of parts that pass into, over and around one another, folding in and spreading out.