FIRST WORLD WAR HISTORY IN URDU PDF
World War 1 Tareekhi Urdu Book Free Pdf Download. Crimes Historic Horror Religious History Urdu Poetry Kids Stories and Much More. A complete biography of the great Muslim woman "Rabia Basri (r.a) in Urdu language in pdf format. Jang-e-Azeem Awwal is all about the 2nd most dangerous WWI in which Jang- e-Azeem Awwal is very recommended for the History and IR students and read online Jang-e-Azeem Awwal Pdf Urdu book from the table. Geography and History – Bilingual Studies – IES Parque de Lisboa, Alcorcón ( Madrid) The factors that explain the outbreak of the First World War are varied.
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The Zionism Movement In the late 19th and early 20th century, an organized religious and political movement known as Zionism emerged among Jews. Zionists wanted to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Massive numbers of Jews immigrated to the ancient holy land and built settlements.
Between and , about 35, Jews relocated to Palestine. Another 40, settled in the area between and Many Jews living in Europe and elsewhere, fearing persecution during the Nazi reign, found refuge in Palestine and embraced Zionism.
Arabs in Palestine resisted the Zionism movement, and tensions between the two groups continue.
Early History of Israel
An Arab nationalist movement developed as a result. In May , Israel was officially declared an independent state with David Ben-Gurion , the head of the Jewish Agency, as the prime minister. While this historic event seemed to be a victory for Jews, it also marked the beginning of more violence with the Arabs. Civil war broke out throughout all of Israel, but a cease-fire agreement was reached in As part of the temporary armistice agreement, the West Bank became part of Jordan, and the Gaza Strip became Egyptian territory.
Some of these include: Suez Crisis: Relations between Israel and Egypt were rocky in the years following the war. The fighting went on for two weeks, until the UN adopted a resolution to stop the war. Syria hoped to recapture the Golan Heights during this battle but was unsuccessful. In , Israel annexed the Golan Heights, but Syria continued to claim it as territory.
After this, the Palestinian Authority formed and took over some territories in Israel.
During the second half of the s, when France and Russia are in alliance and it is accepted that a war must be fought on both fronts, Schlieffen devises a two-stage plan. A massive and rapid flanking attack will be made on France from the north, through Belgium in total disregard of Belgium's neutrality , while a relatively light force holds at bay the Russians - who are likely to be slower in their mobilization.
France will then be defeated in time to redirect the full German might against Russia. In December the emperor William II and his military advisers hold a secret meeting in which they discuss the possible launch of a preventive war, on the basis of the Schlieffen Plan, to protect Germany's interests.
Tirpitz argues for delay to give him more time to build up the fleet. His view prevails, but it is agreed that it will be essential to wait for not much more than two years.
In the Reichstag passes a bill to increase the size of Germany's peacetime army, with a target of , men by the autumn of The other four players in this dangerous game are also now following suit.
There is no evident reason for war. But policy, as if by stealth, seems to be making it inevitable. Five weeks to war: The flashpoint comes in Bosnia on 28 June , when a Serbian nationalist assassinates the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
This is a highly dramatic event, though less unusual then than now since the turn of the century assassins have claimed the lives of a president of the USA , a king of Portugal and a king of Greece.
But it is certainly not due cause for a world war. The mere five weeks between the shot fired in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip and the first declaration of war between the major powers demonstrates vividly the tangle in which Europe's statesmen have tied themselves. The first reaction to the outrage at Sarajevo is from Vienna.
To the Austrian emperor and his advisers the immediate requirement is to destroy the influence of Serbia, the mainstay of Slav resistance to Austria-Hungary in the Balkans. But the danger is that an invasion of Serbia may provoke Slav solidarity and thus war with Russia.
So an urgent question is sent on July 4 to Berlin. Within two days an answer comes back in the affirmative. The Austrian emperor should deal with Serbia as he thinks fit. Germany nevertheless hopes that Russia will hold back, leaving the Serbian crisis as a local affair between Vienna and Belgrade. Subsequently the Kaiser even sends telegrams to the Tsar urging this course of action.
FIRST WORLD WAR HISTORY IN URDU PDF
But if Russia does intervene, there will be one advantage to Germany. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in and Greece joined the Allies in , expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, and the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid, but ultimately the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops.
The February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government , but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution , the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic , and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March , ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March Offensive.
This offensive was initially successful, but failed to score a decisive victory and exhausted the last of the German reserves.To the German argument that Britain is escalating the stakes, Winston Churchill when first lord of the admiralty in replies that for an island nation a powerful navy is a defensive necessity, whereas to Germany it is 'more in the nature of a luxury'.
There was a system of Military Service Tribunals to adjudicate upon claims for exemption upon the grounds of performing civilian work of national importance, domestic hardship, health, and conscientious objection.
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Dodd, Mead. Hundred Days Offensive and Weimar Republic. Washington, DC: On Sunday and Monday 28 and 29 June , the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.
Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets for enemy aircraft. The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation. For the first ten months of , Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy.