LAN SWITCHING FIRST STEP PDF
LAN Switching First-Step Cisco LAN Switching (CCIE Professional Development series) Cisco LAN Switching Configuration Handbook, Second Edition. one of my first network courses and remaining a faithful friend and mentor. Also, . Cisco LAN Switching is designed to help people move forward with their. Your first step into the world of LAN switching No LAN switching experience required Includes clear and easily understood explanations Makes.
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LAN switching is a technology that promises to increase the efficiency of local area more bandwidth available, it can also form an intermediate step in moving . addresses of their neighbors, and when a frame is to be forwarded, they first. Chapter 6 of LAN Switching First-Step, by Matthew Castelli, explains how to differentiate among unicast, multicast, and Read the rest of the excerpt in this PDF. This PDF will be accessible from your Account page after purchase and requires the free Your first step into the world of LAN switching.
The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing. When a switch receives a signal, it creates a frame out of the bits that were from that signal. With this process, it gains access and reads the destination address, after which it forwards that frame to the appropriate port.
This is a very efficient means of data transmission, instead of broadcasting it on all ports. Network congestion occurs when too many users are trying to use the same bandwidth. This is especially true in big networks that do not resort to network segmentation. A Window refers to the number of segments that are allowed to be sent from source to destination before an acknowledgment is sent back. Not really.
What a bridge actually does is to take the large network and filter it, without changing the size of the network. It stores the entire frame to its buffers and performs a CRC check before deciding whether or not to forward that data frame.
It can provide optional services to an application developer. The LLC can also provide error correction. RIP relies on the number of hops in order to determine the best route to a network.
On the other hand, IGRP takes consideration many factors before it decides the best route to take, such as bandwidth, reliability, MTU and hop count. BootP is a protocol that is used to boot diskless workstations that are connected to the network. It is short for Boot Program. The Application Layer supports the communication components of an application and provides network services to application processes that span beyond the OSI reference model specifications.
It also synchronizes applications on the server and client. On the other hand, privileged mode includes all options that are available for User Mode, plus more. You can use this mode in order to make configurations on the router, including making tests and debugging.
This is Ethernet that makes use of fiber optic cable as the main transmission medium. The stands for Mbps, which is the data speed. In full-duplex, both the transmitting device and the receiving device can communicate simultaneously, that is, both can be transmitting and receiving at the same time. In the case of half-duplex, a device cannot receive while it is transmitting, and vice versa.
It refers to the maximum packet size that can be sent out onto the data line without the need to fragment it. In Cut-Through LAN switching, as soon as the router receives the data frame, it will immediately send it out again and forward it to the next network segment after reading the destination address.
Latency is the amount of time delay that measures the point from which a network device receives a data frame to the time it sends it out again towards another network segment. The maximum limit is 15 hop counts. Anything higher than 15 indicates that the network is considered unreachable. Frame Relay is a WAN protocol that provides connection-oriented communication by creating and maintaining virtual circuits.
It has a high-performance rating and operates at the Data Link and Physical Layers. Each interface that is used in the IPX network is then configured with a network number and encapsulation method. There are two types of IPX access lists 1. Standard 2. Standard Access List can only filter the source or destination IP address. An Extended Access List uses the source and destination IP addresses, port, socket, and protocol when filtering a network.
VLANs allow the creation of collision domains by groups other than just physical location. Using VLANs, it is possible to establish networks by different means, such as by function, type of hardware, protocol, among others.
This is a big advantage when compared to conventional LANs wherein collision domains are always tied to physical location. It may also be labeled with the sequence number of the packet. This information eliminates the need for a pre-established path to help the packet find its way to its destination, but means that more information is needed in the packet header, which is therefore larger.
The packets are routed individually, sometimes taking different paths resulting in out-of-order delivery. At the destination, the original message may be reassembled in the correct order, based on the packet sequence numbers.
Thus a virtual circuit carrying a byte stream is provided to the application by a transport layer protocol, although the network only provides a connectionless network layer service.
Connection-oriented transmission requires a setup phase to establish the parameters of communication before any packet is transferred. The signaling protocols used for setup allow the application to specify its requirements and discover link parameters.
Acceptable values for service parameters may be negotiated. The packets transferred may include a connection identifier rather than address information and the packet header can be smaller, as it only needs to contain this code and any information, such as length, timestamp, or sequence number, which is different for different packets.
In this case, address information is only transferred to each node during the connection setup phase, when the route to the destination is discovered and an entry is added to the switching table in each network node through which the connection passes.
CCIE® Professional Development Cisco LAN Switching - 1st Edition
When a connection identifier is used, routing a packet requires the node to look up the connection identifier in a table. Connection-oriented transport layer protocols such as TCP provide a connection-oriented service by using an underlying connectionless network. In this case, the end-to-end principle dictates that the end nodes, not the network itself, are responsible for the connection-oriented behavior.
Packet switching in networks[ edit ] Packet switching is used to optimize the use of the channel capacity available in digital telecommunication networks, such as computer networks, and minimize the transmission latency the time it takes for data to pass across the network , and to increase robustness of communication. The best-known use of packet switching is the Internet and most local area networks. For example, Ethernet and Frame Relay are common.
Newer mobile phone technologies e. These virtual circuits carry variable-length packets. In , X. Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM also is a virtual circuit technology, which uses fixed-length cell relay connection oriented packet switching.
Datagram packet switching is also called connectionless networking because no connections are established. Virtual circuits are especially useful in building robust failover mechanisms and allocating bandwidth for delay-sensitive applications. Frame Relay[ edit ] Both X. Another major difference between X. Frame Relay does not define any such handshakes. It only operates at the user-network-interface UNI.
Thus, the network provider is free to use any procedure it wishes inside the network. As such, its integrity operations pertain only between nodes on a link, not end-to-end. Any retransmissions must be carried out by higher layer protocols. The X. It was widely used at the UNI for packet switching networks during the s and early s, to provide a standardized interface into and out of packet networks.
Some implementations used X. Thus, it rids itself of many X. The simplicity of Frame Relay makes it faster and more efficient than X. Because Frame Relay is a data link layer protocol, like X. For X.
How a Switch Works -- Chapter 6 of 'LAN Switching First-Step'
How this is done is up to the network provider. However, X. Before the introduction of X. Two fundamental differences involved the division of functions and tasks between the hosts at the edge of the network and the network core. In the datagram system, the hosts have the responsibility to ensure orderly delivery of packets. In the virtual call system, the network guarantees sequenced delivery of data to the host.
This results in a simpler host interface with less functionality than in the datagram model.
AppleTalk[ edit ] AppleTalk is a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple in for Apple Macintosh computers. It was the primary protocol used by Apple devices through the s and s. AppleTalk included features that allowed local area networks to be established ad hoc without the requirement for a centralized router or server.
The AppleTalk system automatically assigned addresses, updated the distributed namespace, and configured any required inter-network routing. It was a plug-n-play system. AppleTalk support was available in most networked printers, especially laser printers , some file servers and routers.
It initially had only one host but was designed to support many hosts. First demonstrated in , it was developed to explore alternatives to the early ARPANET design and to support network research generally.
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It was the first network to make the hosts responsible for reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.
It evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the s.Routing is done by a device called routers, which are network layer devices. An example would be the Partially meshed many-to-one test. The objective of the Maximum Forwarding Rate test is to measure the peak value of the Forwarding Rate when the Offered Load is varied between the throughput [ 1 ] and the Maximum Offered Load [ 2 ].
If the traffic generator continues to transmit after the Trial Duration due to congestion control, Oload MAY be averaged over the entire transmit time.
In this example, there are six ports with 1 address per port: Source Port Destination Ports in order of transmission Port 1 2 3 4 5 6 In a word, intelligence.
The three formats of F-4F, F:4F, and