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Since then, the same question was dealt with, once and again. It started as an imperial worksite and was finished during the Republic. Opened in December 31, , in the peak of the rubber economic cycle, it had the Italian Lyrical Company in its premiere night. Built in a city with a hundred thousand habitants at the time, it was a demand from an elite that wished to see and to be seen.

At another corner, A Selva by Ferreira de Castro revealed to the great public the way that the elastic gums were extracted and the manners in which labor was conducted in the rubber plantations. The dramas of a city that wanted to be modern Manaus also studies the embellishing period of the former Vila da Barra do Rio Negro.

Ferreira de Castro: Rio de Janeiro, The timeframe is from to For they could be slaves, freed women, free, black, mulata and white.

The rubber plantations of the Amazon: The article analyzes a set of practices: When those resources where insufficient, hospital care was sought in the nearest urban centers. As well as outside the city limits, in the rural areas, it was possible to find women working and gaining prominence. To acknowledge these oral tradition nuances and the framework of these crystallized memories in their subjectivity, revealing realms of memory, the symbolic spaces, the social disputes, a set of information that embrace meanings and purposes.

Hence the artist, social subjects of this cultural and historic moment, became part of the construction process and diverse entanglement by featuring in Parintins Song Festival, a well-intended political polarization that culminated in the participation of a large number of local young people and the local community. In Fighting vagrancy: An urbanity ideal was designed in this propaganda material.

To live in an urban space required a set of sensitivity, sociability and male affection skills. According to Arenilson, this was the perfect setting for the figure of the vagrant to appear, a negative side to the desired citizen: Even though the wealthiness that could ensure the urban modernization in fact came from forced labor in the rubber plantations, a form of labor not modern at all, in the city the model worker was the one that had a fixed residing place and was disciplined in their manners.

Such contrasts materialized in a city divided between elite spaces and urban mass sectors for the poor workers, the homeless, the orphans, sex workers and alcoholics. This compilation presents two articles from outside the northern region of the country.

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The agents for these transformations originated from various sectors connected to bourgeoise thinking, that had in the press an important ally in transmitting new sociability, affections and urbanity manners, spreading male elegance in a plurality of actions and attitudes. Among those are fashion and wardrobe, entering the order of desterense male daily life. Montevideo , by Cecilia Demarco Gastelumendi analyzes, from a case study, workers associations impact over their members daily life.

From studying his detailed explanations, apologies and remorse, the article aims to unravel the relationship between the associations of workers and the individuals. This book that the reader holds in his hands intends to show how team research and activities from Laboratories, such as the Gender one from UFAM history department, are fundamental to the production of knowledge and its sociability.

Engendered in an intense methodological exchange, trade of ideas and experience between the authors. The texts that compose this compilation, apparently, are antagonistic.

However, by dwelling on them and by excavating their depths, we can discover things, places, love, subjects, habits, practices, cultures, senses, sociability and affection. The richness in the texts here presented come from their contradictions, by looking at the same place and infer on it the nomad dancing perspective regarding the imbricated social, economic, cultural and political composition of Brazilian society, and particularly, Amazonian society.

And, at last, we wish you, dear reader, a great fishing in between the lines that compose the compilation History, whispers and intrigues.

Good reading.

Winter of Prof. From that decade on, the city was gradually reformulated, with piped water systems being inaugurated, electrical lightning services, wastepipe installations, urban garbage collection, public transportation services, public school system enlarged, hospitals, police stations, beside populational and commercial growth.

These city changes were made through rubber extractive production expansion process3, such product had become of the most important materials for capitalist industries based in United States and Western Europe. The nineteenth century passing in Manaus city was characterized by structure and city dynamics transformation processes, as well as in population behavioral patterns.

As the city has been modernizing itself, public powers focused their projects to transform Manaus in the rubber capital. Nos meandros da cidade: Canoa do Tempo: Editora da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, , p. The navigation growth was a decisive factor to facilitate locomotion to other states and countries, making elite children and young adults studying elsewhere in the country or even abroad an ordinary thing.

These ideals were stablished and propagated through public power instruments. After all, it was demanded from a city that would receive many commercial visits to be modern, clean and organized. Soon, this embellishment would not favor its population, but rather its business men, politicians and extractivists6.

Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed. Manaus Valer, Editora da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Crime e Cotidiano: Editora Brasiliense, Not to mention the growth in foreign immigration. Thus, between and Rio de Janeiro saw a growth from In late XIX century, the discomfort from authorities regarding the existence of evildoers, thieves were evident.

Os Bestializados: Companhia das letras, , p. Such process was also present in Manaus city.

Otoni Mesquita11 says Brazilian politics was influenced by the philosophy of positivism, with its appreciation of order and method as efficient means to achieve the very much desired progress. Therefore, those in charge of Brazilian politics believed that building an image consistent with progress and civility parameters could assure the interest from investors and also guarantee satisfactory results for the state. In that period, the local newspapers showed a distinct city heavily interested in embellishment and modernization.

As appears in Commercio do Amazonas, from Unfortunately, Manaus is little wooded. The new century demanded transforming measures. Ugly and dirty streets, filled with garbage all around and wrapped in unpleasant odors, were questioned by the manauara press. La Belle Vitrine: Manaus entre dois tempos October 18th, Echos do Dia note. Available at: Will the authorities dignified themselves to order the appropriate matters to clean that lot?

Or will we be shouting out in the desert? Various city characters were chased by repressing eyes that, posteriorly, were transformed into newspapers headlines. A new coffee shop was inaugurated, undeniably the most luxurious and comfortable in this new capital. Untitled note. July 6th, O nosso programma. December 7th, Polo Norte. According to Daou, these relationships reformulated sociability systems and legitimated their social identities.

The interactions were outlined in social life image to represent such interaction between individuals. The manauara elite was a section of the population that demanded urgency in new urban services.

The reformulated social spaces worked as a legitimation stage for suitable practices for the rubber city. Inserted in reformulations processes, the city and its population experienced the urban space being organized, as well as the regularization of those spaces and the use of controlling tools. These controlling devices took place through norms and restrictions, like games and alcohol prohibitions. In complement, the following code article prevised fines to houses of legal games that sheltered inebriated individuals.

The city growth was accompanied by the increasing of poverty and social inequality. Notes of unpleasantness were published by local newspapers regarding the stay of homeless people in the streets, squares and gardens, saying that they infected the air and the elite with their diseases. The local press demanded concrete measures from law enforcement authorities. For the press, the city was taken by underworld obscurity. The police presence increased in the city, law enforcement organization changed.

February 3rd, We can clearly observe the complaints published in January 29th, edition of Jornal do Commercio, a newspaper of great popularity and circulation.

The note reveals the awkwardness caused by the entrance and permanence of subaltern population in the city — without dignity nor employment-, surviving with illicit incomes. Referencing law enforcement inefficiency to take action on preventing vagrancy: It has been a long time since Manaus city is complaining about law enforcement actions.

It has been a long time that it has been daily invaded by bad living and untrained people, living large, without anyone knowing where the luxury came from. No one like us considers and respect Mr. Chief of Security, but the strength lies in recognizing that our civil law enforcement services fall short The newspaper also calls out to the fact that in a small city like Manaus, one believed law enforcement control regarding entrance, exit and stay of every city person should be easier to conduct.

In a city small like ours, it is easy to know who lives here, who visits, how they make a living, in which job, and which are the habits and addictions of each and every person. There is no other way in, other than by sea, becomes easier to law enforcement to know everyone and everything that comes to Manaus, and therefore prevent against the homeless and the evildoers, that freely displays the product from unlawful transactions in the streets.

But, unfortunately, that is not how it happens In this new scenario, new urban everyday characters appeared. The downtown areas, the city port included, were set in hidden social stages. In those spaces took place interaction between workers, prostitutes, beggars, police officers, journalists, these characters were constant targets in local newspapers columns, which often demanded law enforcement actions regarding theses individuals stay in the city.

In , Jornal do Commercio published a note denouncing the presence of cigarettes in the city streets: January 29th, A Bem da Moral. The police officers should stop this business that is said to be the pretense for this ragged courtship to rob whatever it encounters In the Visconde do Rio Branco Square and Visconde de Porto Alegre Street neighborhood, the residents requested that authorities take action regarding vacant lots covered in wood, they asked for public cleaning services, because individuals living in those places used them as toilets, spreading a bad odor throughout the area.

To add up, a portion of bums serves themselves to those public roads as if they were toilets, provoking, initially, an unbearable stench, whose consequences are fatally prejudicial to public health They complained that those individuals persisted in utilizing the space as a dormitory and other related business, and the unpleasant smell and dirt took over Visconde do Rio Branco Square.

The Visconde do Rio Branco residents request, for the second time, that the superintendence takes action and order a cleaning of that Square, which is transformed into a stinking trash.

Bums who slept in there, made it their toilet. The stench is unbearable Imparcial newspaper published a note stating that the public properties abandonment was frequent in the city, the existence of the so-called Kiosks - wood sustained structures by the sidewalk-, that commercialized a large number of alcoholic beverages, against an extensive clientele, in contrast with nocturnal subjects. The disarrays and fights were inevitable in those kiosks.

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May 1st, Varias Noticias. July 1st, July 3rd, Is not rare that conflicts take place at those baffling monuments that greatly disfigure our new city, full of more or less beautiful houses The local newspaper concluded the note with the Assistant Deputy decision to close the bars at 9 P.

The honorable and prudent Mr. Edinea Mascarenhas26 understands that the policies that aimed job market growth were made according to dominant class parameters. The public measures and projects intended to poverty control were shaped from control and correction of habits and manners mechanisms. Police rounds were used as a disorder prevention tool, that reflected on various crimes and misdemeanors, such as inebriation, vagrancy, illegal commerce, prostitution, gambling…; but also included protecting those who were part of the productive force, that is, the workers.

In an urban space protection environment, public security measures, once again, had dominant class interests in mind. A message from Amazonas State governor in states that: September 18th, Medida Louvavel.

In this aspect, the press, once again, represented a moral and disciplinarian speech propagation tool, accomplishing a variety of notes about the risk taken with these practices permanencies. Commercio do Amazonas newspaper, in , published a note informing that Law number , of March 17th, , dealt with hotels that hosted prostitutes.

We said it once, we already repeated: And that is why we are in defense mode Jonathas de Freitas Pedrosa. September 17th, Queixas do Povo. April 4th, O Vicio. Aos Srs. The hotel was a prostitution house and was located at a very busy street, facing a public school. And — ridicule — right across the street from the prostitution house is a public school, where the children learn to read and drink their first moral lessons!

The possible coexistence between the students and the daily routine of the women who provided sexual services there caused affliction in manauara society. We can observe in this newspaper note that the prostitute is portraited as an unhappy woman, forced to sell herself: We ask, with our characteristic dispassionate sincerity: Social History Graduate Studies Program.

Manaus, AM. March, 14th, Pela moralidade publica. Os prazeres da noite. Paz e Terra, , p. Doctors, lawyers and feminists propagated their speeches against such practice. The prostitute was covered with multiple images that attributed to her characteristics of independence, freedom and power: The modernization process comes to the timid city of Manaus e carry with it configurations of new symbols that represented the progress and the modernity in urban space.

Such economic phenomena brought numerous consequences for the city, both in structural and behavioral terms. Sandra Pesavento38 understands modern culture as something prominently urban, that involves the considering of two inseparable scopes: Yet, we should consider that aspects of urban life became guided by a modern life style that raises diversified popular imaginary transformations Public hygiene was another major concern.

March 12th, Atravez da cidade. O musco cahido, em foco. A Cidade Sobre os Ombros. Trabalho e Conflito no Porto de Manaus. EDUA, , p. Porto Alegre, , p. The city is dirty, infected: Based on hygiene and aesthetics, the Manaus city urban reform was strongly built on social imaginary guided by Parisian modernity. We can not fail to consider that the transformations experienced in the city surpassed architecture aspects. Manaus, in early twentieth century, had approximately 50 thousand of its residents41 a substantial portion of its entire population with low income or unemployed.

Moreira Street, etc April 18th, Echos do dia. A variola. These visits had a purpose to vaccinate the ill people and to prescribe new habits, such as house trash removal, the cleaning of bathrooms and warehouses, among other hygienic measures.

DIAS, This made the repression to prostitutes behavior visible. Another no less important measure, directly tied to law enforcement organization, is the creation of categories between security authorities, in a way that police services be done at a district by its respective authority, without, however, having the right to refuse to do any other police work, whenever it was that way determined by a superior authority… I understand that the adoption of energetic measures becomes essential in a way to repress offensive moral abuses, that occur many times by harlots that invade the most visited city points Entering the twentieth century represented a great city movement.

The press was a tool often used to propagate a new lifestyle through advertisements inspired by French fashion, cigars and cigarettes, and from numerous services, such as piano tuners, brokers, doctor, lawyers, tailors, etc. New ways of making money appeared, as well as other methods of accumulating it. Alongside wealth accumulation was the increase in the arrivals of people from another states or countries, as well as the market development.

Manaus eagerness to be modern became bigger and bigger, and the parallel to the rubber glamour Manaus denigrated those ideals. Urging for measures to be taken; In Gloria Bridge, there is a board missing, which harms passers crossing it. And even more so because across the street from a new building, or among two commercial buildings, there is a muck that prevents the passage of people The intent involved in constructing more appropriate and organized spaces entails a series of diversified social representations of those who observed and enjoyed such places.

Theses representations are also made possible through prescriptions and norms that dictate if behaviors and habits were appropriate or not. Amid urban representations, there were characters who, during the daily transformations, lived their experiences and sociabilities. In this process, the city was divided in two parts: The Brazilian cities urbanization projects accentuated social segregation, making certain spaces, like the alleys and backstreets, become poor places, dirty and dark, home to the worse kinds of individuals.

The public powers searched for a method that valued moral, urban order and good manners, ergo it became necessary to push away disadvantaged classes, vagrants, unhealthy, prostitutes, beggars, among others.

The repeated images, portraited in-between the lines throughout the research materials, make up a multifaceted city: Such statements display a city as it was perceived by manaura press in twentieth century.

Uma Outra Cidade. Companhia Editora Nacional, , p. Mary Del Priore, says: Del Priore talk about a new ideary, a new lifestyle which included physical exhibition, the pursuit for pleasure, beyond a "more sensual approach of the landscape which allowed the inventions of ways of 'letting itself be seen'". This body exhibition and the evidence of sexuality had its place on newspapers pages all over the country and then press opened space to physical exhibition at early last century.

But not only that, In Manaus, for instance, the newspapers began to show more social events, the fashion, the beauty, the women in publicity as more specific physical type, describing some kind of beauty pattern, as was written by Jordana Caliri: Octavo, Planeta do Brasil, It is noticed in chronic and especially in letters and columns almost an obligation in the act of reading the newspapers.

Reading means being informed about reality. Is the inclusion in the world, participation in the daily dramas in the city's life and mystified reality for those pages.

To read, even if it were listening, is to be in the world. I propose to explore how to see this individual who sought ways of expressing their sexuality, their desires, their eroticism, their experiences, their doubts, their jealousy, and their yearnings, but perhaps not quite knowing how to do it.

And that writing to the edition of the newspaper Folha Popular seemed to him simply externalize as pseudonym. I wish to contribute to the construction of the figure of the Manauara in the first years of the last decade of the twentieth century and observe its own behavior of a resident in the capital of the largest state in the country.

Os sonhos da cidade: Revistas Escritas do Tocantins. Educ Fapesp, Os donos do Rio: Who were these readers who at the beginning of the last decade of the twentieth century published their lived, thought, dreamed fantasies, their obscure confessions, their spicy dreams, their amorous delusions? Who were those behind the signed letters that even using a false name exposed latent emotions?

This one was inserted into the shame society? Revealing in a newspaper what no one tells a spouse or friend, for example, was the way to satisfy the desire to expose, to publish their experiences that his generation did not tell? You can relentlessly pursue questions and more answers, but never exhaust the possibilities to look and question these subjects and their confidences.

For this reader and author of the reports published in Folhetim da Dor column is embedded in a cultural context that one must take into consideration before the actual approach to this subject.

I limited myself to the time frame of the June 18, until June 31, in Manaus. Working objectively, the letters that the readers sent to the editor of the newspaper published in the Folhetim da Dor column of the Folha Popular newspaper In order to call to reflection for the behavior portraited of that part of society Manaus. The Folha Popular, circulated in Manaus from June to March , was described by its then CEO as belonging to a "popular and daring line"54 and I believe that these two adjectives are the best conceptualized editions.

Imprensa Amazonense. Also, according to the IBGE, These abandoned their studies early in the primary school and only Divorce was legalized in June 28, and the Brazilian family was undergoing major changes, "originating in a growing number of unmarried men and women" The Folhetim da Dor Column seemed to move and distract readers of the Folha Popular newspaper, with reader confessions, intimate stories, sexuality, homosexuality, doubt, guilt, violence, and infidelities.

It was a kind of "mural of confessions", of those things that are not even told to a friend, because the revelation could trigger in shame, separation and even death. Enable an approach, at first, to cases of betrayals that were not received peacefully and involving verbal, physical or psychological.

And this relationship between the stories of traitors and betrayed in Folhetim da Dor column and the covers of the newspaper stamping out violence against unfaithful spouses.

But the marital betrayals also took over a good part of the letters destined to the Folhetim da Dor column and were not restricted to a single sex. Men and women's infidelity stories was a gift to their readers. On June 21, , Edilson confessed that he was having an affair with Amelinha, wife of a stevedore from the escadaria dos Remedios, and despite the fear of appearing "in the Folha's crime pages as another Ricardao that took the worst"60 continued the forbidden case.

Moved by the thought that their honor before society would be tarnished, the vast majority of those betrayed did not gently regard infidelity.

The ridicule on the cover of the newspaper seemed to move the city. Neither this nor that. He went out the door, naked, being beaten, because I am not a man to accept horn like that, out of nowhere [ Another case of extreme violence is from disillusioned Adelaide62, who lost her virginity at the age of 12, traumatized until the age of 20 who rejected men, believing that she was the object of amusement in their hands.

But after that he met military police officer Naldo with whom she married. Life was going well and she was struggling to help with the expenses of 59 The sexual behavior of more than 8, people Coluna Folhetim da Dor. Disgusted, Adelaide demanded explanations from her husband upon arriving home, and in response, he said, "You were nothing else when you married me.

You should thank me, "referring to the fact that she was not a virgin any more when they were married. Adelaide returned to her parents' house on the same day and only returned the old house the next day to get her clothes and belongings, but she found her husband and her lover having sex. Out of her mind, she stabbed Naldo, who did not resist and died, her lover fled almost naked. Realizing what she had done, Adelaide set the knife against her breast to take her life and at that moment felt something stir in her womb, she was pregnant.

Adelaide was arrested and acquitted two years later. Her son never knew how his father died and, of men, she says she does not want to know anymore. The story of this woman approaches so many other stories that I could read in the Folhetim da dor Column. The idea of being harmed, betrayed, and humiliated was so tormenting and unbearable that men and women made it a cruel and violent experience.

The motives behind the betrayals ranged from sexual dissatisfaction, "love of sex" or revenge. And I ended up getting tired of living in that frustration. It was in this way that I arranged a date by correspondence with a stranger.

On June 22 of the same year, the Desperate Princess states that: Magdalene, the lascivious told that she tried to withdraw her excitement by a year-old boy who was the son of her neighbor: I'm struggling not to betray my husband again. I do not know if I can" Creuza Maria, troubled by the crucifixion of the woman and her image in the column Folhetim da Dor said: But this is not the case.

When a man is betrayed, he has his share of guilt. But he liked going out to the bar with his friends and came home carried by them. But I did not care. I wanted to be with friends and drink. But Alberto decided to dedicate himself more to the woman and left the bar for a while, a short time, in fact.

Soon alcohol came back to life with friends. Surprisingly, my wife said nothing. She only prepared my clothes and food [ She agreed with them every night to have sex with one of them.

And my friends, interested in my beautiful wife, agreed. There's no way. And because he was so jealous, I felt a desire to betray him, but not in a conventional way. I wanted to do something different, able to satisfy my thirst for revenge against my husband's jealousy and at the same time to have that forever in my memory. For Love of Sex Denise says that she fell in life at the age of 15, was expelled from home and soon became a whore while still living in Belem.

After a while she met Matias, businessman, widower and father of a year-old son, who paid hers bills and took her out of the club where she worked. Six months later he met Alberto, by chance, in a supermarket.

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He lived with him madness of love, even though he was still with Matias. It was on a Tuesday morning that the bell of my apartment rang and I went to answer: I almost had a heart attack, because who was at the door was Alberto.

He, too, was quite surprised and was speechless for a moment. After the surprise, I asked him what he was doing there. He, in turn, asked if I really lived there. I answered yes. That's when Alberto changed his expression: Three months later Alberto returned to the nightclub, Matthias had died and he wanted to see her again.

A year later Denise became Mrs. No financial objective, but only for the love of sex. They recall a time when society was not so "evolved," in which women were demure, men trustworthy, children with a glance already knew how to interpret what the older men meant, politics had big names and strong personalities, the songs were compositions of quality and thus classified numerous areas of daily life.

This idea that "it was not like that in the past" or that in the past things were better came from where? What exactly was better? I hear the elders say that there was more shame, more respect, more "limits. In the past, sex values changed slowly. With the advent of the media, those values that would take decades to change have changed from year to year. Conversando sobre sexo. Vozes Ltda, Everything was new.

Figure 1: The girls expressed concern when asked if they would wear shorts to enjoy the carnival: In spite of this, it was the pants that prevailed in our halls, during the carnival, when the woman had more freedom of movement, because she saw in her trousers the best outfit for this type of party. More than violence, Folha portrayed eroticism, sexuality, and explicit nudity in their covers. In , some newspapers of Manaus generally illustrate a woman sensually on the cover or in the back pages, but always in a bikini, lingerie or with small and tight clothes.

These photos are largely photographic tests performed by models and celebrities not exclusively made for newspapers but are replicated over there as a way to draw the attention of curious eyes of your readers. It's frightening to think of a woman completely naked on the cover of a newspaper, with pubic hair showing at the height of my parents' generation.

But it was just like that on The Folha. Women with genitals very explicit were national celebrities of the time. Playboy, founded in , was on the rise among the male audience, as well as Ele e Ela, Galiery and Private. But who is this audience that Folha Popular wanted to conquer? Did the Manauaras consume this exposure of female nudity?

Figure 2: Cover of Folha Popular on July 7, In the past, parents did not have much trouble knowing what was right or wrong. What they should allow or condemn. The values were absolute. Today, it is difficult to agree on a system of sexual values. In the same family there is no equality of positions with regard to any sexual theme.

Talking about the history of the present time is as challenging as learning to ride a bike. And I have to say I have a bad motor coordination. It was, above all, a daring to speak of local sexuality in the last decade of the twentieth century, a period that was not very well traveled by historians in this area, that I dedicated myself to this project.

The stories published in the Folhetim da Dor column raise suspicions even today whether they were true or just stories to trap the readers' imagination. I chose not to dwell on this aspect, even trying, on several occasions, to contact the editor of the newspaper at that time. I chose to believe in those sequences of stories without modesty, those records of the most obscure memory and the most transparent confessions of the authors.

Manaus, in the early s was not the country's modernity and daring reference, it was a girl discovering her wishes, testing her limits and breaking her modesty. By disrupting what had already been determined and experiencing the new.

And perhaps this process of discovery is constant and lasts until today. Manauara sexuality suffers interference year after year and is repaginated within that country which presents itself "as a country of sexual freedom and tolerance for excesses of lust" Carla Baute The number of researches about feminine labor in the Amazon increased considerably.

The rubber workers performed the main task in the period from nineteenth to the twentieth century, cutting the rubber tree to collect the gum was a task that demanded both time and effort. Mulheres da Floresta: Hucitec, Os estudos rurais e estudos urbanos. Editora Mercado das Letras, Mulheres nos Seringais do Amazonas: One cuts the rubber, with rubber knife, a knife to cut the rubber is not the same as a knife to cut the fish.

After this process, the merchandise was yet to be brought to the sheds for the rubber to be weighted and to acquire basic items, such as food and working tools. Cristina Wolff describes well how this trade worked: Furthermore, money was not the usual mean to this trade, which the rubber man only had access in the end of the cutting period, if he could achieve a positive balance in his bank account, in which his shed shopping was debited and rubber producing credited.

That if the bosses were yet willing to pay the balance, because there are many stories about fights between employers and rubber men charging their balance. Raimundo Nogueira. Interview [April 6th, ]. Agda Lima Brito, Manaus: Amazonas, Late twentieth century decoy was repeated, this time with the Brazilian State direct participation.

The women originally from other Brazilian regions or the ones born in the rubber groves, within the placements, had a work routine since very early in life. Their routine revolved around labor, most of the time. The ones that worked in the placements, at the same time that they produced for the rubber grove bosses, they experienced a certain amount of freedom, making their own forms of resistance, according to Gerson Albuquerque: The difference is that, in the world these people live in, the characters in these stories are shaped in silence, in solitude and in their relationship with the forest.

In their worldview, they gain concreteness because they articulate the meaning of human existence, with their traditions and values, meanings that are a part of their constantly re-elaborated ways of living. Trabalhadores do Muru: Rio Branco - Acre: In this way, they were fooling the imposed trade system of the sheds and seeking other alternatives.

That is why it became so necessary to understand how these women began to seek different ways to keep out of the sheds. The heaviest work there was for you to do was cut the rubber.

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Mulheres no Seringal: Interview [Nov. Her father cut the rubber at Anori, she describes with what they worked in the region: With beans, rice. The women planted, the men were farmers. It was like that, that care of those people, cooked, kill the ox and all the pigs, chicken, the women did it for the ones that were working with their husbands, the ones from the northeast as well.

Those families were able to, then, have more time available to hunt, to farm the land, thus decreasing the consumption from the sheds. Interview [Apr. Elas plantavam, eles eram agricultor. Interview [Feb. In the beginning it was good, we had animals to hunt, then there was nothing, no, all you had to do was starve, all the animals were frightened, there was nothing left, we suffer a lot The boss should deliver the goods for the rubber workers at the placements, and also collect the goods.

Francisca tells that, in the rubber groves that she worked, the boss delivered the goods every six months. Ana Xavier manifests dissatisfaction with her employers throughout her statements. But over there it was a misery life, poverty everywhere, only the boss had money and whoever took a kilo of rubber to sell for someone else, he would get that person fired.

It was a distinct relationship: Life on the land, the making of the flour for trade and consumption, the nut, all of those activities were portraited as very heavy labor, as we can perceive from Francisca Diogo statement, by describing one of the flour making processes performed by her and her mother: It was another task, the land, she would work the land, and the we would do the farming and then we would plant the manioc, then when the time came she would go and harvest it, that is where the flour comes, from manioc.

But the flour was very complicated, you would place a part of the sauce inside the water, so that it could soften, so you would 89 PINTO, Ana Xavier. Parceiros no Crime: At this point, the adults toasted the flour by the fire, pulling the wheel, by pulling the wheel I mean fatten, manually. Pulling the wheel, put the squeezer made dough, to squeeze and dry it, so that one could sift and then toast, this was the task. All those women downstairs at the flour house, a large and cover with straw shed.

They peel all of it, wash it, two men goes, one to the wheel and other to the fatten, fatten, that dough goes to the squeezer, tamp it for a determined amount of time, some minutes, half an hour, and it dries that water out, then you suspend the wood that squeezes it, then it goes to the sieve, to sift, then it goes to the oven to toast, that is the flour task…92 Within each step, we can perceive the degree of requirement of such processes, keeping in mind that without the help from the whole family in some cases, help from other 91 JESUS, Francisca Diogo.

The women and children participation in this process was the biggest one, since the men spent hours inside the jungle cutting rubber. As Ana Xavier affirm: Francisca Diogo indicates that the nut harvesting process also demanded time and disposition: She mother , he father worked as well, the nut is the same as the rubber, you get out in the morning, then go harvesting the nut, keep harvesting, take a paneiro with you, then you fill the paneiro and dump on the ground.

Then when he finishes harvesting that nut, bellow the chestnut tree, then he goes breaking all of them, with a machete, chopping them and placing them in the paneiro, continues chopping, when the paneiro gets full, then he washes the nut, washes all of them. Then the bad nuts are taken out, the ones that are not good, only the good ones remain, then he sells, sells them in boxes, they carry it in the canoes, when they get there they sell it, in the boxes.

Francisca Diogo Jesus. Interview [06 Abril. The memory of all the interviewed women is very connected to the farming. So, one was forced to work day and night, are you understanding me? In order to survive, to be able to save that farming, right at the end to pluck out the land, by diving, only the tip of the leaf stood out from the water like that, when one dives to pluck out like that is heavy work…98 96 JESUS, Francisca Diogo.

The flour is a part of the food routine in north and northeast regions, and according to the statements, is possible to notice how its cultivation was important to those families. Corn, beans and tobacco were also cultivated. The nuts were also collected and processed by those female workers.

The nut, besides being used for consumption, were also traded in for other goods in the shed. Altina Lopes, a female shed worker, highlights the tasks she performed when received such merchandises, like nuts, the hunt or the rubber: The costumer cut the rubber, did everything, sometimes my daughter had a shed there, the shed was upstairs, and downstairs was the float, that float was used to put the things as they arrived, by any chance the rubber, the nut, there were days that we spent the whole night in this float, receiving nuts, weighing the rubber, it was me and Benjamin her brother , we suffered a lot, the two of us.

Interview [May 08th, ]. Have you ever thought about it? As we can understand, the work in the sheds was also very tiring, besides that, Lopes had no contact with the money, nor did her brother, that remained with the boss, the rubber grove owner, that is why sometimes Lopes endured altercations from the costumers.

They would want us to pay the money to him or pay in merchandise and we were not going, we were authorized to do that, it was not like we do not wanted to do it, we were not able to do, to put that in his hand without having one. Mostly, the bosses managed the sheds, but in this specific case, the boss spent most of his time in Manaus city and did not authorized money payments for the workers, nor in merchandise, in case the debt was too high.

Whoever oversaw the shed at the moment was in a complicated situation, because both parts were in constant tension. With that we could say that inside the shed there was exploitation as well, since, in this case, the female worker struggle with an exhaustive daily work routine, besides having to deal with rubber men demanding her to give money, except that the only one who had access to it was the boss. To confirm our hypothesis, we have Ana Xavier statement. Her father worked in the sheds, dealing with the account books.

When her father went blind, he was fired from the job, posteriorly, he passed away. Before this fact, her family did not receive any assistance from the bosses, so, Ana, alongside her brothers, had to cut the rubber in order to survive in the placements. Nonetheless, families in the rubber grove always managed to cheat the system.

Then the man went there, made a deal for the rubber, or whatever he had in merchandise, without the boss knowing it, secretly. If the boss found out, he threw out the costumer, he was forced to gather all of his merchandise and give it to the boss, if he needed anything, so much that he never was in the balance, right, he went there, bought the goods from the boss and went home, the boss stood there keeping record of it, when he finished making the merchandise, then he went to report it, but usually one always was in debt, because they stole it.

On the contrary, within an exploitation system — where the workers and female workers were not able to obtain basic goods for the survival of their own families, they reacted their way. They had an exhaustive and necessary work routine, under constant concern about the boss. Other bosses did not prohibit farming, under the condition that the rubber productivity was not compromised. Such condition made the rubber worker to increase his working day. Many rubber workers ended up completely leaving the work at the rubber groves — after paying their debt, something very rare — and migrated for good to the agriculture.

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