MASTER CCNP ROUTE PDF
How to master CCNP ROUTE GNS3Vault. com – René Molenaar Page 3 of Introduction One of the things I do in life is work as a Cisco Certified System. How to Master CCNP TSHOOT. olhon.info – René Molenaar. Page 23 of This will work but I'll have to scan the table myself. Router#show ip route master the CCNP exam. also love routing & switching because it‟s one of those fields in IT that . It can do private vlans which is a CCNP SWITCH topic.
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Download the Book:How To Master Ccnp Route PDF For Free, Preface: How to master CCNP ROUTE shows you, step-by-step, everything you need to know to. Garry Baker February 10, Book Details. How to Master CCNP Route. Rene Molenaar. EBook PDF via instant download with watermark. http://gns3vault. CCNP Routing and Switching SWITCH Official Cert Guide olhon.info How to Master CCNP SWITCH Rene Molenaar How.
Autonomous system numbers are bit which means we have AS 1 up to Since January we can also use bit numbers for autonomous systems.
How to Master CCNP Route
External BGP is to exchange routing information between the different autonomous systems. We can reach the internet through both ISPs. There are a number of options: The customer router will advertise its We have connectivity because of the default routes but this can lead to sub-optimal routing. If we only have the default routes then we will send all traffic to one of the ISPs.
Our customer network only received a default route from both ISPs and we have chosen to use the default route of ISP1 to send all our outgoing traffic to. This means that whenever we send traffic meant for This partial update might include all the IP address space that the ISPs have assigned to their customers.
Just like in real life…the more you know the better off you are. In the world of routing having more routing information means you can make better routing decisions. In case you are wondering how large a full Internet routing table would be…you can find it online: This of course requires more memory and CPU power to maintain! On the internet there are a number of looking glass servers. These are routers that have public view access and you can use them to look at the Internet routing table.
If you want to see what it looks like check out: You can telnet to these devices and use show ip route and show ip bgp to check the BGP or routing table. All our IGPS have in common that they want to find the fastest path to the destination.
How to Master CCNP Route
BGP is also called a policybased routing protocol. Influencing traffic with BGP is very easy to do. Look at the image above. We have 4 autonomous systems and we are running BGP to exchange routing information. In AS 1 we have network This is one of the looking glass servers. By using the show ip bgp command I can look at the BGP table and we see this router knows about network 1.
The next-hop IP address is At the end of the line you see path with the numbers These are the autonomous systems we have to get through in order to get to this network. In the picture above I have 9 autonomous systems and in AS 9 we have network If we look at AS 1 then we have a lot of different paths we can take to reach network Does this mean the network administrator at AS 1 can choose the path we are going to use?
Not really because of the following reasons: AS 1 will only learn about the best path from AS 2 and AS3 unless their best path fails…only then you will learn about the second best path. So far so good? The next part of this chapter will be fun. Just two routers and two autonomous systems. Each router has a network on a loopback interface which we are going to advertise in BGP. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router neighbor This is how we configure external BGP.
You also see how many prefixes you received from each neighbor. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router network 1. If you want to advertise something with BGP you need to make sure you type the exact subnet mask for the network you want to advertise.
If I would type network 1. You can see that router Emma has learned about network 2. It also shows the path information. You can see that network 2. Emma show ip route bgp 2. In the example I just showed you router Emma and Marie used the IP addresses on their directly connected interface to establish the external BGP neighbor adjacency. Emma config ip route 2. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router neighbor 2. We also have to use the update-source command to tell BGP to source its updates from the loopback0 interface.
When we source our updates from the loopback interfaces we will exceed a TTL of 1, this is something you have to change: I have set the TTL at 2 hops. Emma show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier 1.
Look at the topology above. Our goal is to make sure AS 1 can reach network 3. AS 3 has been configured to advertise network 3. Router John is running BGP and now has network 3. Our next step is to make sure router Jim will advertise network 3. If you want to advertise something with BGP it has to be in your routing table and we have two options to do this: How about a full Internet routing table? Internal BGP to the rescue!
Router Jim can learn about network 3.
Are we done now? Not quite yet…. Router Jim receives this packet, looks at its routing table and sees it has to forward it towards router John. Router Jack or James receives this IP packet and looks at its routing table to find the destination 3. Uh-oh…router Jack nor router James has no idea where to find network 3. The packet will be dropped and an ICMP unreachable will be sent. How do we solve this problem? Configure internal BGP on all routers within the autonomous system.
AS 2 is what we call a transit AS. Otherwise you might have reachability issues. I switched the network diagram from horizontal to vertical so you can see everything including the interfaces, IP addresses etc. Maria config router bgp 1 Maria config-router neighbor Emma config router bgp 3 Emma config-router network 6.
John show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier How are we going to do this? Right now I only have one network which is no problem but redistributing a full internet routing table into OSPF is not going to happen.
Router John and Jim have no idea how to reach each other… There are two options: Jim config router ospf 1 Jim config-router network Can router John now reach router Jim?
Once again we can take the blue or the red pill…here are your choices: Those interfaces are advertised in OSPF so they are reachable. Physical interfaces can go down and if that happens our BGP neighbor adjacency will drop. If any of the physical interfaces goes down our IGP OSPF will take care of selecting a new path to the loopback interfaces, sounds good right? John config interface loopback 0 John config-if ip address 5.
Jim config router bgp 2 Jim config-router neighbor 5. We need to use the update-source command to tell BGP to source the update from the loopback interface.
Jim show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier Let me show you the difference between router Jim and John: Jim show ip bgp include 3. Jim show ip route bgp John show ip route bgp 3. Why is this route not installed from the BGP table into the routing table? Let me show you! Does router Jim have any idea how to reach network Both will work. If you use OSPF just make sure that you configure passive-interface otherwise you will send hello packets outside of your autonomous system.
If you use BGP you need to keep in mind that these networks will be advertised to other autonomous systems. John config router bgp 2 John config-router network So what has changed now? The next hop IP address is now reachable so it can be installed in the routing table. Jim show ip route bgp 3. Maria ping 6. What is going on here?
Maria traceroute 6. Tracing the route to 6. Jim show ip route include 6. Jim show ip route include This is starting to look like a rabbit hole… Jim show ip route 5. Now what do you think happens if they receive an IP packet with destination 6.
They have no idea where that network is located. So how do we fix it? This is one of the parts that confuses most people who are new to BGP. If you have learned OSPF and EIGRP you probably got used to the idea that once something is in the routing table it is reachable unless you have access-lists blocking stuff or are playing with frame-relay.
With BGP this is definitely not the case as you can witness here. For BGP this is very simple: That sounds logical right? What about internal BGP?
The AS number is the same! To solve this problem we have something called BGP split-horizon. Since the AS number within the autonomous system is always the same there is no way for internal BGP routers to use the loop prevention mechanism. This is called BGP split-horizon. Let me demonstrate this to you! James config interface loopback 0 James config-if ip address 4.
Router Emma advertises network 6. Router John advertises network 6. Router Jim does not advertise network 3. I do want router James and Jack to learn about network 6. Internal BGP routers have to be configured as full-mesh.
In my example router James and Jack need to learn about network 6. If we create a full mesh of internal BGP routers we know for sure that each internal BGP router can learn about any network out there.
John config router bgp 2 John config-router neighbor 4. So are we done now? As you can see router Lizzy is sending 3 hello packets meant for router Jack, John and Lizzy. Sending 3 packets on the same link is not very useful so instead of doing this EIGRP will send hello packets by using multicast on a multi-access network like Ethernet. As soon as you send hello packets and receive them your EIGRP routers will try to form the neighbor adjacency.
Update packets have routing information and are sent reliable to whatever router that requires this information. Update packets can be sent to a single neighbor using unicast or to a group of neighbors using multicast.
What happens is that your router will send query packets to its neighbors asking them if they have information about this particular network. Reply packets are used in response to the query packets and are reliable. ACK packets are used to acknowledge the receipt of update, query and replay packets. ACK packets are sent by using unicast. The first one is the neighbor table and this is where EIGRP stores all information of directly connected neighbors.
After we have become neighbors routers will exchange routing information which is stored in the EIGRP topology table. As soon as we enable it for the interface they will start sending hello packets. In this example router Jack is the first router to send a hello packet. As soon as router John receives the hello packet from Jack it will respond by sending update packets that contain all the routing information that it has in its routing table.
The only routes that are not sent on this interface are the one that John learned on this interface because of split-horizon. At this moment there is still no neighbor adjacency until router John has sent a hello packet to Jack. Router Jack is of course not the only one sending hello packets.
As soon as router John sends a hello packet to Jack we can continue to setup a neighbor adjacency. After both routers have exchanged hello packets we will establish the neighbor adjacency. Router John is anxious to receive routing information as well so Jack will send update packets to John who will save this information in its EIGRP topology table. After receiving the update packets router John will send an ACK back to Jack to let him know everything is ok.
As soon as both routers have exchanged routing information they will select the best paths to each destination and copy those to the routing table.
My goal is to have full connectivity and here are the configurations: Jack config router eigrp 1 Jack config-router no auto-summary Jack config-router network 1.
Book Review: How to Master CCNP Route
In this case that means that 1. Network 1. Does it matter? Yes and no. It will work but also means that every interface that falls within the 1. Network If you are working on a lab and are lazy like me you can also type in network 0. Use the passive interface command. John config router eigrp 1 John config-router passive-interface loopback 0 This will advertise the 2.
You can also configure passiveinterface default and only activate the interfaces you want to run EIGRP on. John is also receiving an update packet from router Jack and afterwards sending its own update packet. If you want to see the whole process we can combine some debugging. Show ip protocols is a very useful and powerful command in your CCNP arsenal. It will show you for which networks you are routing, passive interfaces and the administrative distance.
See the external administrative distance of ? As you can see we have one neighbor What else do we find here? Your first neighbor will have a value of 0, the second neighbor a value of 1 and so on.
Once this timer expires we will drop the neighbor adjacency. The default holddown timer is 15 seconds. Ideally you want this number to be 0 otherwise it might be an indication of congestion on the network. It will go into active mode and send query packets to ALL its neighbors asking them if they know how to reach this network.
By setting the reply status flag it will do this. More on this later! In this case there is only one way to get to the destination. The second value is the advertised distance. Does this make sense to you? Understanding the EIGRP topology table is very important for troubleshooting or when we start playing with load balancing. What do we find here? In the examples above you could see that the feasible and advertise distance values are a bit higher which makes them annoying to work with.
If you look at it you can see that it incorporates bandwidth, load, delay and reliability and you can see K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 values.
These K values are only numbers to scale numbers in the metric calculation. Only K1 and K3 are enabled by default. The example above only shows part of the output. You can see the bandwidth is Kbit which is a Mbit interface. Cisco IOS will have default delay values for the different types of interface. A FastEthernet interface has a default delay of usec. If you are having issues this value will decrease.
This means that only bandwidth and delay are used in the formula. Why not? Because loading and reliability are dynamic values and they can change over time. We want routing protocols to be nice and quiet and only base their routing decisions on static values like bandwidth and delay.
As you can see there is an upper path with some T1 interfaces and a 64kbps link. The path below has two kbps links. A T1 interface has a bandwidth of 1. Does this make your head spin? The important lesson I wanted to show you here is that EIGRP uses the slowest bandwidth in the path and the sum of delays.
No need to do any manual calculations on the exam! Feel like playing with the metrics and some load balancing?
Note the EIGRP will summarize to the classful network by default. So what happens with router Hearts? It thinks it can reach the Obviously this is going to cause problems. Spade config router eigrp 1 Spade config-router no auto-summary Clubs config router eigrp 1 Clubs config-router no auto-summary Type in the no auto-summary command to make sure EIGRP behaves classless and sends the subnet mask along. In the picture below we have router Jack and John, router Jack has the following networks configured: You need to specify the AS number and the subnet mask to send along the network.
We reduced its routing table from 4 entries to just 1 entry. Look at router Jack above and check out the last entry. Our Null0 interface is like a black hole sucking up packets never to return again…ouch!
Let me show you another example.
If you look at the example above I made a change. I created the summary This is a C- example! You have to remove the old one yourself. So what happens when we send a ping towards an IP address within the John ping Jack config access-list permit ip any Debug ip packet is VERY useful but you need to use an access-list otherwise you drown in information. Rating Scale based on Administrative Distance.
I would say that his site, and his technique are awesome, so I had recommended his books to colleagues of mine. No one—not even me yet —has been able to do the same thing with Juniper. And that really matters to me, because after all the time I spent working on Cisco, I was recently hired in an all Juniper service provider! Especially since CDP neighbor is really verboten. Your email address will not be published.EIGRP will summarize to the classful network by default.
For routing between the different autonomous systems we use an EGP external gateway protocol. IPv6 Routing Protocols. We could add another router at the customer side and connect it to the ISP. Spade config router eigrp 1 Spade config-router no auto-summary Clubs config router eigrp 1 Clubs config-router no auto-summary Type in the no auto-summary command to make sure EIGRP behaves classless and sends the subnet mask along.
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